AWK 文字处理

Notice:

感觉 The AWK Programming Language 讲得更清晰,虽然是进阶,但让我再来一遍,我就不看陈皓的简明教程了。本书不愧 9.5 的评分,入门就看看原书 第一章(我的笔记),进阶就继续看后几章。)

入门:AWK 简明教程

Data: netstat.txt
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local-Address          Foreign-Address             State
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306           0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:80             0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:9000         0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        124.205.5.146:18245         TIME_WAIT
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        61.140.101.185:37538        FIN_WAIT2
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        110.194.134.189:1032        ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        123.169.124.111:49809       ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        116.234.127.77:11502        FIN_WAIT2
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        123.169.124.111:49829       ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        183.60.215.36:36970         TIME_WAIT
tcp        0   4166 coolshell.cn:80        61.148.242.38:30901         ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      1 coolshell.cn:80        124.152.181.209:26825       FIN_WAIT1
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        110.194.134.189:4796        ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        183.60.212.163:51082        TIME_WAIT
tcp        0      1 coolshell.cn:80        208.115.113.92:50601        LAST_ACK
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        123.169.124.111:49840       ESTABLISHED
tcp        0      0 coolshell.cn:80        117.136.20.85:50025         FIN_WAIT2
tcp        0      0 :::22                  :::*                        LISTEN

Some Code Examples:

# retrive spefic fields
awk '{print $1, $4}' netstat.txt

# format fields
awk '{printf "%-8s %-8s %-8s %-18s %-22s %-15s\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6}' netstat.txt

# apply filter
awk '$3==0 && $6=="LISTEN" ' netstat.txt
awk ' $3>0 {print $0}' netstat.txt
awk '$3==0 && $6=="LISTEN" || NR==1 ' netstat.txt # plus first row

built-in variables

variable 说明
$0 当前记录(这个变量中存放着整个行的内容)
$1~$n 当前记录的第n个字段,字段间由FS分隔
FS Field Separator. 输入字段分隔符 默认是空格或Tab
NF Number of Fields. 当前记录中的字段个数,就是有多少列
NR Number of Lines Read so far. 已经读出的记录数,就是行号,从1开始,如果有多个文件话,这个值也是不断累加中。
FNR 当前记录数,与NR不同的是,这个值会是各个文件自己的行号
RS Record Separator. 输入的记录分隔符, 默认为换行符
OFS Output FS. 输出字段分隔符, 默认也是空格
ORS Output RS. 输出的记录分隔符,默认为换行符
FILENAME 当前输入文件的名字

more examples

awk  'BEGIN{FS=":"} {print $1,$3,$6}' /etc/passwd
awk  -F: '{print $1,$3,$6}' /etc/passwd

# multi FS
awk -F '[;:]'
awk -F: '{print $1,$3,$6}' OFS="\t" /etc/passwd

# regexpr
awk '$6 ~ /WAIT|TIME/ || NR==1 {print NR,$4,$5,$6}' OFS="\t" netstat.txt # match WAIT or TIME

# awk 拆分文件很简单,使用重定向就好了
awk 'NR!=1{print > $6}' netstat.txt

# bonus
awk 'NR!=1{if($6 ~ /TIME|ESTABLISHED/) print > "1.txt";
else if($6 ~ /LISTEN/) print > "2.txt";
else print > "3.txt" }' netstat.txt
for i in {1,2,3}.txt; do echo $i; cat $i; done

# sum file size
$ ls -l  *.cpp *.c *.h | awk '{sum+=$5} END {print sum}'

awk 'NR!=1{a[$6]++;} END {for (i in a) print i ", " a[i];}' netstat.txt
awk -f ./call.awk score.txt

a complicated example

$ file cal.awk
#!/bin/awk -f
#运行前
BEGIN {
    math = 0, english = 0, computer = 0
    printf "NAME    NO.   MATH  ENGLISH  COMPUTER   TOTAL\n"
    printf "---------------------------------------------\n"
}
#运行中
{
    math+=$3, english+=$4, computer+=$5
    printf "%-6s %-6s %4d %8d %8d %8d\n", $1, $2, $3,$4,$5, $3+$4+$5
}
#运行后
END {
    printf "---------------------------------------------\n"
    printf "  TOTAL:%10d %8d %8d \n", math, english, computer
    printf "AVERAGE:%10.2f %8.2f %8.2f\n", math/NR, english/NR, computer/NR
}
$ score.txt
Marry  2143     78       84       77      239
Jack   2321     66       78       45      189
Tom    2122     48       77       71      196
Mike   2537     87       97       95      279

和环境变量交互:(使用 -v 参数和 ENVIRON

x=5 && y = 10 && export y
awk -v val=$x '{print $1, $2, $3, $4+val, $5+ENVIRON["y"]}' OFS="\t" score.txt

more tricks

# 打印99乘法表
seq 9 | sed 'H;g' | awk -v RS='' '{for(i=1;i<=NF;i++)printf("%dx%d=%d%s", i, NR, i*NR, i==NR?"\n":"\t")}'

The AWK Programming Language

The AWK Programming Language

写了点读书笔记,戳这里


Refs

  1. AWK 简明教程
  2. The AWK Programming Language 9.5 !!!

「Load Disqus | 加载评论」