随便翻翻 & Men Lists & Words Lists

这是一个摘抄系列的合集。时间跨度至少有半年,14 年有意思的就这部分了。

Words List 01

KML - Keyhole Markup Language

Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed for use with Google Earth, which was originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer. It was created by Keyhole, Inc, which was acquired by Google in 2004. KML became an international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files. Other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support.

WKT - Well-known text

Well-known text (WKT) is a text markup language for representing vector geometry objects on a map, spatial reference systems of spatial objects and transformations between spatial reference systems. A binary equivalent, known as well-known binary (WKB) is used to transfer and store the same information on databases, such as PostGIS, Microsoft SQL Server and DB2. The formats were originally defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and described in their Simple Feature Access and Coordinate Transformation Service specifications.

Compose key

compose keys

compose keys

compose-key

当时我在 Debian 上试了一些:

ä  ã  ǎ  ā  á  ă  å
®  ©  ™  «  »  …  “  ” ‘ ’
x² + y² = ½
20 °C
a · b
ß § ø đ æ ¡ ¿ ¥

how to do this?

MOOC

MOOC(Massive Open Online Course,大规模在线公开课)已经引发教育的革命。一根网线便可以让贫民窟连接上世界最顶尖学校的最牛老师,在家里和全世界做同学分享学习经验,合作完成作业不再是梦想。而你却还不知道 MOOC 是什么吗?

xMOOC 一词之所以被创造出来, 是为了与早期理想主义者们基于 connectivism 理念的 cMOOC 相区分。这里我只介绍以 Coursera, edX, Udacity 为代表的 xMOOC.

But I want to say:

Focus on what you really want to do, and Using the “If … Then …” method to achieve it

BSoD - Blue Screen of Death

蓝屏(blue screen of death)

蓝屏(blue screen of death)

Blue Screen of Death 指的是微软 Windows 操作系统在无法从一个系统错误中恢复过来时所显示的屏幕图像。

Forge

forge

forge

forge-google

我当然不是说的炼钢这个 forge,就跟中文的“打造”一样,它有培养的意思。

消失的爱人 (Gone Girl) (01:11:33),Amy:

But I made him smarter. Sharper.

I inspired him to rise to my level.

I forged the man of my dreams.

话说我想知道易卜生(Henrik Johan Ibsen)的“你最大的责任是把你这块材料铸造成器”是不是用的这个词,但是没有查到。

Artifact (software development)

An artifact is one of many kinds of tangible by-product produced during the development of software. Some artifacts (e.g., use cases, class diagrams, and other UML models, requirements and design documents) help describe the function, architecture, and design of software. Other artifacts are concerned with the process of development itself—such as project plans, business cases, and risk assessments.

In end-user development an artifact is either an application or a complex data object that is created by an end-user without the need to know a general programming language. Artifacts describe automated behavior or control sequences, such as database requests or grammar rules, or user-generated content.

这个词也困扰过我。不过现在我大概算是理解了。

Artifact 的词源是拉丁语 arte + factum,arte 是「艺术」或者「技能」的意思, factum 则是「做、造」的动名词形式,artifact 的意思其实就是「用技艺制造(出来的东西)」,所以这个词经常可以翻译为「(手)工艺品」。但它的意义其实不限于此——我们日常所说的「(手)工艺品」一般是指英文的 handicraft,也就是「手制品」。一切手制品其实都是用技艺制造出来的,故而可以说一切 handicraft 都是 artifact,但反过来不行。

Artifact 一词强调的物体属性其实是非自然——一块一万年前的燧石不是 artifact,但一只原始人使用的石斧就是了(此时不应将其翻译为「手工艺品」而是「手工制品」,因为「工艺品」在中文里面暗示这个东西带有一定的艺术欣赏价值,但古人使用的工具并不是拿来当摆设的)。登月时看到月球上的陨石坑不是 artifact,但如果看到一块表面光滑的六面体黑色方形石碑,那就得叫 artifact——即便它显然不可能是(已知的)人类所造。哪怕某种东西是看不到摸不着的,但只要它不是自然形成,也可以算是 artifact,比如互联网。这个意义通常很难翻译,中文里面没有完全对等的概念,只能视乎语境称为「人造物」或者「非自然产物」,如果「非自然」的属性并不重要,那也可以简单地叫做「制品」或者「产物」。

对了,有个同源的词,artificial,一般翻译为「人工的」,与「天然的」相对: Artificial intelligence is no match for natural stupidity。

濤吳的解釋已經很好了,補充一段 Bruce Sterling《Shaping Things》裏的文章。他把人造物的歷史分爲 Artifacts、MACHINES、PRODUCTS、GIZMOS、SPIME 幾個階段,它們對應的使用者分別是獵人和農夫、顧客、消費者、終端用戶、和「信息牛仔」(wrangler)。我們目前正處在從 GIZMOS 階段到 SPIME 階段的過渡期。

They’re usaully referring to something you create, usually as a side effect, to help you accomplish something. Perhaps a diagram, a design document,a GUI prototype, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artifact_(software_development) has more insight.

(感觉这个解释就挺清楚。Artifact 是一些辅助自己开发的工具。)

(Note, In many software tools, an artifact have a much more narrow meaning, meaning a file/library/executable that’s produced when you build/compile something)

refs and see also

LBS - Location Based Service

基于位置的服务(Location Based Service,LBS),它是通过电信移动运营商的无线电通讯网络 (如 GSM 网、CDMA 网)或 外部定位方式(如 GPS) 获取移动终端用户的位置信息(地理坐标,或大地坐标),在 GIS(Geographic Information System,地理信息系统)平台的支持下,为用户提供相应服务的一种增值业务。

LBS are used in a variety of contexts, such as health, indoor object search, entertainment, work, personal life, etc.

Canonical

canonical /kəˈnɒnɪk(ə)l/

熟悉开源的人应该都听过这个词,但是这个词发音跟 GNU 一样,怪。

fickle

fickle

adj. 浮躁的;易变的;变幻无常的

jQuery

jQuery is a cross-platform JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. It was released in January 2006 at BarCamp NYC by John Resig. It is currently developed by a team of developers led by Dave Methvin. Used by over 80% of the 10,000 most visited websites, jQuery is the most popular JavaScript library in use today.

感觉自己弄这个博客的时候居然没用 jQuery,既牛逼,又错过了学习它的机会。用了,我必须得说,大赞!)

AJAX

Ajax (also AJAX; /ˈeɪdʒæks/; an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a group of interrelated web development techniques used on the client-side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send data to, and retrieve data from, a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. Data can be retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object. Despite the name, the use of XML is not required (JSON is often used instead. See AJAJ), and the requests do not need to be asynchronous.

JSON

JSON

JSON

json

JSON (/ˈdʒeɪsɒn/ jay-soun, /ˈdʒeɪsən/ jay-son), or JavaScript Object Notation, is an open standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML.

Although originally derived from the JavaScript scripting language, JSON is a language-independent data format, and code for parsing and generating JSON data is readily available in a large variety of programming languages.

deprecated

deprecated /'dɛprə,ketɪd/
deprecated

deprecated

conjunction

conjunction 结合;[语] 连接词;同时发生
conjunction

conjunction

hexadecimal

hexadecimal ,hɛksə'dɛsɪml
hexadecimal

hexadecimal

diacritical

diacritical

A diacritical mark is a “glyph” added to a letter. (à _ á)

TIY

Try It Yourself, seen from W3C School

mandatory

mandatory

Mandatory Must do

DOM - Document Object Model

The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent convention for representing and interacting with objects in HTML, XHTML and XML documents. Objects in the DOM tree may be addressed and manipulated by using methods on the objects. The public interface of a DOM is specified in its application programming interface (API). The history of the Document Object Model is intertwined with the history of the “browser wars” of the late 1990s between Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, as well as with that of JavaScript and JScript, the first scripting languages to be widely implemented in the layout engines of web browsers.

(这个音发“道穆”,我以前老以为是“杜穆”……)

MIME -Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

MIME is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support:

Ogg

Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The creators of the Ogg format state that it is unrestricted by software patents and is designed to provide for efficient streaming and manipulation of high quality digital multimedia.

“Ogg” is derived from “ogging”, jargon from the computer game Netrek, which came to mean doing something forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources.

The Ogg container format can multiplex a number of independent streams for audio, video, text (such as subtitles), and metadata.

Groove

groove

wrap

wrap [ræp]

NaN - Not A Number

In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations. Systematic use of NaNs was introduced by the IEEE 754 floating-point standard in 1985, along with the representation of other non-finite quantities like infinities.

Two separate kinds of NaNs are provided, termed quiet NaNs and signaling NaNs. Quiet NaNs are used to propagate errors resulting from invalid operations or values, whereas signaling NaNs can support advanced features such as mixing numerical and symbolic computation or other extensions to basic floating-point arithmetic. For example, 0/0 is undefined as a real number, and so represented by NaN; the square root of a negative number is imaginary, and thus not representable as a real floating-point number, and so is represented by NaN; and NaNs may be used to represent missing values in computations

Always be the worst musician in a band

always-be-the-worst-musician-in-a-band

A jazz musician friend of mine told me this:

If you are not the worst musician in in your band, you should immediately switch bands.

I work at Spotify. I feel like a piece of shit programmer almost every day. I didn’t at my last workplace. So I left and started at Spotify.

When the time comes when I no longer feel like a piece of shit programmer here, I’ll quit and move on to a place that can once again make me feel like piece of shit.

This strategy has worked out really well for me during my career.

(这个观点很有意思。)

功率放大器简称功放

功率放大器简称功放,俗称“扩音机”,是音响系统中最基本的设备,它的任务是把来自信号源(专业音响系统中则是来自调音台)的微弱电信号进行放大以驱动扬声器发出声音。

Power Amplifier

An audio power amplifier is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power audio signals (signals composed primarily of frequencies between 20 - 20 000 Hz, the human range of hearing) to a level suitable for driving loudspeakers and is the final stage in a typical audio playback chain.

OTS - Over-The-Shoulder Shot

over the shoulder shot

over the shoulder shot

In film or video, an over the shoulder shot (also over shoulder, OS, OTS, or third-person shot) is a shot of someone or something taken from the perspective or camera angle from the shoulder of another person. The back of the shoulder and head of this person is used to frame the image of whatever (or whomever) the camera is pointing toward. This type of shot is very common when two characters are having a discussion and will usually follow an establishing shot which helps the audience place the characters in their setting. It is an example of a camera angle.

(我就说我比小璇璇知识丰富多了~)

Cranberry

cranberry

cranberry

cranberry

Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus( 酸果蔓属) is regarded as a genus in its own right. They can be found in acidic bogs(沼泽) throughout the cooler regions of the northern hemisphere.

feat.

Just featuring. This is used when there is an invited artist on a track.

It is not restricted to music. It was used on film and show billboards. You could also translate this (depending on context, select as many options as appropriate) by with the (exceptional/gracefully acknowledged/reciprocated/just-passing-by/I-just-so-love-this-guy/requested-by-the-management/i-lost-a-stupid-bet/this-is-my-brother-in-law) participation of to use a latin-derived word.

(这个在唱片里很多,feat. edition,常见的还有 “acoustic”, live, remix)

Bog

bog

bog

A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss. It is one of the four main types of wetlands. Other names for bogs include mire, quagmire and muskeg; alkaline(碱性的) mires are called fens. They are frequently covered in ericaceous shrubs rooted in the sphagnum moss and peat. The gradual accumulation of decayed plant material in a bog functions as a carbon sink.

Bogs occur where the water at the ground surface is acidic and low in nutrients. In some cases, the water is derived entirely from precipitation(沉淀), in which case they are termed ombrotrophic (rain-fed). Water flowing out of bogs has a characteristic brown colour, which comes from dissolved peat tannins. In general the low fertility and cool climate results in relatively slow plant growth, but decay is even slower owing to the saturated soil. Hence peat accumulates. Large areas of landscape can be covered many metres deep in peat. Bogs have distinctive assemblages of plant and animal species and are of high importance for biodiversity, particularly in landscapes that are otherwise settled and farmed.

versatile

versatile

多才多艺的;通用的,万能的;多面手的

这个单词在英文里很常用。

偶然看到,双性恋(可“攻”可“受”那种)的人,也常被戏称为“versatile”。

excerpt

excerpt
  1. 摘录,引用

时区(Time Zoon)

Time Standards

NAS - Network-Attached Storage

Network-attached storage (NAS) is file-level computer data storage connected to a computer network providing data access to a heterogeneous group of clients. NAS not only operates as a file server, but is specialized for this task either by its hardware, software, or configuration of those elements. NAS is often manufactured as a computer appliance – a specialized computer built from the ground up for storing and serving files – rather than simply a general purpose computer being used for the role.

LSB - Linux Standard Base

The Linux Standard Base (LSB) is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the filesystem hierarchy used in the GNU/Linux operating system. The LSB is based on the POSIX specification, the Single UNIX Specification, and several other open standards, but extends them in certain areas.

Wake on LAN

Wake-on-LAN (WOL) is an Ethernet computer networking standard that allows a computer to be turned on or awakened by a network message.

The message is usually sent by a program executed on another computer on the same local area network. It is also possible to initiate the message from another network by using subnet directed broadcasts or a WOL gateway service. Equivalent terms include wake on WAN, remote wake-up, power on by LAN, power up by LAN, resume by LAN, resume on LAN and wake up on LAN. In case the computer being awakened is communicating via Wi-Fi, a supplementary standard called Wake on Wireless LAN (WoWLAN) must be employed.

DMI - Desktop Management Interface

The Desktop Management Interface (DMI) generates a standard framework for managing and tracking components in a desktop, notebook or server computer, by abstracting these components from the software that manages them. The development of DMI marked the first move by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) into desktop-management standards. Before the introduction of DMI, no standardized source of information could provide details about components in a personal computer.

DMI exposes system data (including the System Management BIOS (SMBIOS) data) to management software, but the two specifications function independently.

DMI is commonly confused with SMBIOS, which was actually called DMIBIOS in its first revisions.

Semaphore (programming)

In computer science, particularly in operating systems, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type that is used for controlling access, by multiple processes, to a common resource in a parallel programming or a multi user environment.

A useful way to think of a semaphore is as a record of how many units of a particular resource are available, coupled with operations to safely (i.e., without race conditions) adjust that record as units are required or become free, and, if necessary, wait until a unit of the resource becomes available. Semaphores are a useful tool in the prevention of race conditions; however, their use is by no means a guarantee that a program is free from these problems. Semaphores which allow an arbitrary resource count are called counting semaphores, while semaphores which are restricted to the values 0 and 1 (or locked/unlocked, unavailable/available) are called binary semaphores.

RandR

The X Resize, Rotate and Reflect Extension (RandR) is an X Window System extension, which allows clients to dynamically change X screens, so as to resize, rotate and reflect the root window of a screen. The initial X11 design did not anticipate the need for dynamic resizing and it was necessary to restart the X display server to bring about the changes. However, XFree86 has, since its first release, supported changing the screen resolution on the fly without changing the desktop size. RandR extension framework brought the ability to change display characteristics without restarting the X session. The extension framework allows laptops and handheld computers to change their screen size to drive external monitors at different resolutions than their built in screens

Word List 02

Meme

A meme (/ˈmiːm/ meem) is “an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture.” A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols, or practices that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues(类似物) to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate, and respond to selective pressures.

The gene has its cultural analog, too: the meme. In cultural evolution, a meme is a replicator and propagator—an idea, a fashion, a chain letter, or a conspiracy(共谋) theory. On a bad day, a meme is a virus.

(你不能说 meme 是流言蜚语,因为它是中性词。它更像是地方特色、风俗,roman’s way of living。有道上的翻译是“文化基因”,很好。)

注意不要和 mime 弄混,那是 mime(maim),这是 meme(meem,“两个我”)。 mime 引申出去一个词叫 mimic。MIME 还代表互联网文本格式(比如 text/javascript)。

tentative

tentative

TMI - Too Much Information

TMI

way more than you need/want to know about someone.

上面的例子太生动了,应该是我从 UrbanDictionary 上找的。

see also Three Mile Island accident, March 28, 1979

plasma

plasma

plasma

Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, “anything formed”) is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas). It comprises the major component of the Sun. Heating a gas may ionize its molecules or atoms (reducing or increasing the number of electrons in them), thus turning it into a plasma, which contains charged particles: positive ions and negative electrons or ions. Ionization[,aɪənɪ'zeʃən] can be induced by other means, such as strong electromagnetic field applied with a laser or microwave generator, and is accompanied by the dissociation of molecular bonds, if present. Plasma can also be created by the application of an electric field on a gas, where the underlying process is the Townsend avalanche.

animistic

animistic

adj. 精灵论的;万物有灵论的

总让我想到《万物有灵且有美》。

sic

The Latin adverb sic (“thus”; in full: sic erat scriptum, “thus was it written”) added immediately after a quoted word or phrase (or a longer piece of text), indicates that the quotation has been transcribed exactly as found in the original source, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling or other nonstandard presentation.

The notation’s usual purpose is to inform the reader that any errors or apparent errors in the transcribed material do not arise from errors in the course of the transcription, and the errors have been repeated intentionally, i.e., that they are reproduced exactly as set down by the original writer or printer.

It may also be used as a form of ridicule or as a humorous comment, drawing attention to the original writer’s spelling mistakes or emphasizing his or her erroneous logic. Sic is generally placed inside square brackets “[ ]”, and traditionally in italics, as is customary when printing a foreign word. It is sometimes placed in parentheses “( )” instead, though this is less than optimal, as brackets are meant to signify that something was added to a quote.

FYI - For Your Information

FYI is a common abbreviation of “For Your Information” (or interest, in some interpretations).

“FYI” is commonly used in e-mail, instant messaging or memo messages, typically in the message subject, to flag the message as an informational message, with the intent to communicate to the receiver that he/she may be interested in the topic, but is not required to perform any action. It is also commonly used in informal and business spoken conversations.

Among Internet Standards, FYIs are a subset of the Request for Comments (RFC) series.

The following description is taken from FYI, the FYI on FYI:

The FYI series of notes is designed to provide Internet users with a central repository of information about any topics which relate to the Internet. FYIs topics may range from historical memos on “Why it was done this way” to answers to commonly asked operational questions.

Long tail

In statistics, a long tail of some distributions of numbers is the portion of the distribution having a large number of occurrences far from the “head” or central part of the distribution. The distribution could involve popularities, random numbers of occurrences of events with various probabilities, etc. A probability distribution is said to have a long tail, if a larger share of population rests within its tail than would under a normal distribution. A long-tail distribution will arise with the inclusion of many values unusually far from the mean, which increase the magnitude of the skewness(n. 歪斜) of the distribution. A long-tailed distribution is a particular type of heavy-tailed distribution.

Tic-tac-toe

Tic-tac-toe (or Noughts and crosses, Xs and Os) is a paper-and-pencil game for two players, X and O, who take turns marking the spaces in a 3×3 grid. The player who succeeds in placing three respective marks in a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal row wins the game.

这游戏家喻户晓(除了中国),但实际上很无聊。明显是大人欺负小孩子的游戏。

Wacom Digitizer

Wacom Digitizer
电源管理驱动 Power Management driver
电源管理系统 Power Manager
数字手写板 Wacom Digitizer
指纹识别系统 Fingerprint Software

Wacom(和冠): a Brand

Grigori Rasputin

Grigori Rasputin

Grigori Rasputin

Rasputin was a healer, a man of God and an equal rights activist. For nearly a century, Grigory Rasputin, spiritual advisor to Russia’s last Tsar and Tsarina, has been unjustly maligned ([mə'laɪn], 污蔑) simply because history is written by the politically…

长得有点个性。

Han Solo

Han Solo is a character in the original trilogy of the Star Wars universe. He is portrayed by Harrison Ford. He and his co-pilot, Chewbacca, become involved in the Rebel Alliance against the Galactic Empire. Over the course of the Star Wars franchise, he becomes a chief figure in the Alliance and succeeding galactic governments. Star Wars creator George Lucas described the character as “a loner who realizes the importance of being part of a group and helping for the common good.

Cassandra

Cassandra

Cassandra

[kə'sændrə]

In Greek mythology, Cassandra (Greek Κασσάνδρα, also Κασάνδρα; ), also known as Alexandra or Kassandra, was the daughter of King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy. She had the power of prophecy and the curse of never being believed. A common version of her story is that Apollo gave her the power of prophecy in order to seduce(诱惑) her, but when she refused him, he gave her the curse of never being believed. In an alternate version, she fell asleep in a temple, and snakes licked (or whispered in) her ears so that she was able to hear the future. The connection between snakes and knowledge is a recurring theme in Greek mythology, though sometimes it brings an ability to understand the language of animals rather than an ability to know the future. She is a figure of both epic tradition and of tragedy.

Wheel

The term Wheel was adopted by Unix users in the 1980s, due to the movement of operating system developers and users from TENEX/TOPS-20 to Unix. Modern Unix implementations generally include a security protocol that requires a user be a member of the wheel user privileges group in order to gain superuser access to a machine by using the su command.

Big Wheel / Big Wheels:

A person with a great deal of power or influence, especially a high-ranking person in an organization, e.g. “She’s a big wheel at IBM.”

鉴于 wheel(轮子) 还有这个意思,以后我们把“造轮子”当成“造神”的双关语。

Hymn

Hymn

Hymn

A hymn /him/ is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity(神) or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification. The word hymn derives from Greek ὕμνος (hymnos), which means “a song of praise”. Collections of hymns are known as hymnals or hymn books.

RMS 写的自由软件之歌(The Free Software Song)就是一首 Hymn,而 RMS 则是 Saint in the Church of Emacs,ST. IGNUCIUS。

omnivore

An omnivore /ˈomnɪvɔər/, meaning ‘all-eater’ (Latin, omnes, omnia, meaning “all” or “everything” and vorare meaning “to devour”), is an animal that can derive its energy and nutrients from a diet consisting of a variety of food sources that may include plants, animals, algae and fungi.

Omnivores often are opportunistic, general feeders which lack carnivore or herbivore specializations for acquiring or processing food, but which nevertheless consume both animal protein and vegetation.

RMS 说自己是个什么都吃的人,用的就是 omnivore 这个词。

Words List 03

Red tape

red tape

red tape

Red tape is an idiom that refers to excessive regulation or rigid conformity to formal rules that is considered redundant or bureaucratic and hinders or prevents action or decision-making. It is usually applied to governments, corporations, and other large organizations.

One definition is the “collection or sequence of forms and procedures required to gain bureaucratic approval for something, especially when oppressively complex and time-consuming”. Another definition is the “bureaucratic practice of hair splitting or foot dragging, blamed by its practitioners on the system that forces them to follow prescribed procedures to the letter”.

Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar. The first concerns traditional grammar, which tends to view a predicate as one of two main parts of a sentence, the other part being the subject; the purpose of the predicate is to modify the subject. The second derives from work in predicate calculus (predicate logic, first order logic) and is prominent in modern theories of syntax and grammar. In this approach, the predicate of a sentence corresponds mainly to the main verb and any auxiliaries that accompany the main verb, whereas the arguments of that predicate (e.g. the subject and object noun phrases) are outside the predicate. The competition between these two concepts has generated confusion concerning the use of the term predicate in theories of grammar.

integerp, numberp -> t, nil

;; float must have a dot followed by a zero
(integerp 3.) ; returns t
(floatp 3.)   ; returns nil
(floatp 3.0)  ; returns t

“谓词演算”的“谓词”就是这个 predicate。很多黑客喜欢用 “you-want-black-coffee-p” 这种蛋疼的句式来表一般疑问。另一面,很多中国人老想着用流畅的语法来表达自己,其实这中 hyphen seperated 形容词也很常用。很切可以说得很长。而且这种句子用英文说起来很有意思,比如:我是一个「天天吃-大盘鸡-从不厌烦」的人。

IMO - In My Opinion

as I see it and in my opinion; in my view

总觉得这个词,有卖萌嫌疑。

SCM - Software configuration management

In software engineering, software configuration management (SCM) is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-discipline field of configuration management. SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. If something goes wrong, SCM can determine what was changed and who changed it. If a configuration is working well, SCM can determine how to replicate it across many hosts.

The acronym “SCM” is also expanded as source configuration management and software change and configuration management. However, “configuration” is generally understood to cover changes typically made by a system administrator; management of source code undergoing software development is considered separately (see revision control).

记住,SVN、Git、Bazzar、Mercurial 这些都算 SCM。

Editor war

Editor war is the common name for the rivalry between users of the Vi (Vim) and Emacs text editors. The rivalry has become a lasting part of hacker culture and the free software community.

Many flame wars have been fought between groups insisting that their editor of choice is the paragon of editing perfection, and insulting the others. Unlike the related battles over operating systems, programming languages, and even source code indent style, choice of editor usually only affects oneself.

see also: brower war

Vim 是最棒的。Emacs 其次。其它不需要排名次。

Shebang

在计算机科学中,Shebang(也称为 Hashbang)是一个由井号和叹号构成的字符串行(#!),其出现在文本文件的第一行的前两个字符。 在文件中存在 Shebang 的情况下,类 Unix 操作系统的程序载入器会分析 Shebang 后的内容,将这些内容作为解释器指令,并调用该指令,并将载有 Shebang 的文件路径作为该解释器的参数。

Shebang 的名字来自于 SHArp 和 bang,或 haSH bang 的缩写,指代 Shebang 中 #! 两个符号的典型 Unix 名称。 Unix 术语中,井号通常称为 sharp,hash 或 mesh;而叹号则常常称为bang。也有看法认为,shebang 名字中的 sh 来自于默认 shell Bourne shell 的名称,sh,因为常常使用 shebang 调用之。

name suffix

A name suffix, in the Western English-language naming tradition, follows a person’s full name and provides additional information about the person. Post-nominal letters indicate that the individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, or honor.

post nominal letters

Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, or designatory letters, are letters placed after the name of a person to indicate that the individual holds a position, educational degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute. An individual may use several different sets of post-nominal letters, but in some regions it may be customary to limit the number of sets to one or just a few. The order in which these are listed after a name is based on the order of precedence and category of the order. Post-nominal letters are one of the main types of name suffix.

De-facto

De facto (/dɨ ˈfæktoʊ/, /deɪ-/, Latin: [deː ˈfaktoː]) is a Latin expression that means “concerning fact”. In law, it often means “in practice but not necessarily ordained by law” or “in practice or actuality, but not officially established”. It is commonly used in contrast to de jure (which means “concerning the law”) when referring to matters of law, governance, or technique (such as standards) that are found in the common experience as created or developed without or contrary to a regulation. When discussing a legal situation, de jure designates what the law says, while de facto designates action of what happens in practice. It is analogous and similar to the expressions “for all intents and purposes” or “in fact”.

这个词很常见。(是“实际中的主流”的意思?感觉和一个词弄混了。)

Quotation mark glyphs

Different typefaces, character encodings and computer languages use various encodings and glyphs for quotation marks. This article lists some of these glyphs along with their Unicode code points and HTML entities.

你能看出来上面那句话和 HAL 来自哪儿吗?

在 CSS 里只要设置 quotes: '"' '"' "'" "'" 就可以了。

see also Quotation Mark

DWIM - Do What I Mean

DWIM (“Do What I Mean”) computer systems attempt to anticipate what users intend to do, correcting trivial errors automatically rather than blindly executing users’ explicit but incorrect input. The term was coined by Warren Teitelman in his DWIM package for BBN Lisp, part of his PILOT system, some time before 1966.

Teitelman’s DWIM package “correct(ed) errors automatically or with minor user intervention”, similarly to a spell checker for natural language.

Teitelman and his Xerox PARC colleague Larry Masinter later described the philosophy of DWIM in the Interlisp programming environment (the successor of BBN Lisp):

Although most users think of DWIM as a single identifiable package, it embodies a pervasive philosophy of user interface design: at the user interface level, system facilities should make reasonable interpretations when given unrecognized input. …the style of interface used throughout Interlisp allows the user to omit various parameters and have these default to reasonable values…

DWIM is an embodiment of the idea that the user is interacting with an agent who attempts to interpret the user’s request from contextual information. Since we want the user to feel that he is conversing with the system, he should not be stopped and forced to correct himself or give additional information in situations where the correction or information is obvious.

Critics of DWIM claimed that it was “tuned to the particular typing mistakes to which Teitelman was prone, and no others” and called it “Do What Teitelman Means” or “Do What Interlisp Means.”

乞题

窃取论点(英语:begging the question 或 question begging;拉丁语:petitio principii),又称乞求论点、乞题、丐题等等,是在论证时把不该视为理所当然的命题默认为理所当然,这是一种不当默认的非形式谬误。

乞题的界定可大致归为两大类,一为承续亚氏的界定,将乞题定义为“默认了结论为真”,这是一种语形上的界定;亦有人提出语用判准,将乞题定义为“默认了不应默认的前提”,以含括更多直觉上为不当默认的不恰当推理。

Examples:

Modus operandi

犯罪手法 (Modus Operandi) 是固定不變的作案方式 /'modəs/ /ɔpə'rændɪ/

Modus operandi (plural modi operandi) is a Latin phrase, approximately translated as “method of operation”. The term is used to describe someone’s habits of working, particularly in the context of business or criminal investigations. In English, it is often shortened to M.O.

The expression is often used in police work when discussing a crime and addressing the methods employed by the perpetrators. It is also used in criminal profiling, where it can help in finding clues to the offender’s psychology. It largely consists of examining the actions used by the individual(s) to execute the crime, prevent its detection and/or facilitate escape. A suspect’s modus operandi can assist in his identification, apprehension, or repression, and can also be used to determine links between crimes.

Words List 04

QWAN - Quality without a Name

For Christopher Alexander, it is most important to think about the people who will come in contact with a piece of architecture. One of his key values is making these people feel more alive. He talks about the “quality without a name” (QWAN).

More generally, we could say that a good system should be accepted, welcomed and happily embraced as an enrichment of daily life by those who are meant to use it, or - even better - by all people it affects. For instance, when discussing a street café, Alexander discusses the possible desires of a guest, but also mentions people who just walk by.

The same thinking can be applied to technical devices such as telephones and cars, to social structures like a team working on a project, or to the user interface of a computer program. The qualities of a software system, for instance, could be rated by observing whether users spend their time enjoying or struggling with the system.

Another possible value is the efficiency of a system, regarding a specific task. Here the happiness of the participants is less important, as long as they do their job. In software engineering, design patterns usually help to create object-oriented code that is easy to read, maintain, modify and reuse. By focusing on the impacts on human life, we can identify patterns that are independent from changing technology, and thus find “timeless quality”.

这玩意儿也没中文翻译,突然想到,是不是可以说成是“无印良品”

Narcissus

Narcissus

Narcissus

In Greek mythology, Narcissus (/nɑrˈsɪsəs/; Greek: Νάρκισσος, Narkissos) was a hunter from the territory of Thespiae in Boeotia who was renowned for his beauty. He was the son of a river god named Cephissus and a nymph named Liriope. He was exceptionally proud of what he did to those who loved him. Nemesis noticed and attracted Narcissus to a pool, wherein he saw his reflection and fell in love with it, not realizing it was merely an image. Unable to leave the beauty of his reflection, Narcissus died. Narcissus is the origin of the term narcissism, a fixation with oneself.

自恋得停不下来了。

孕妇效应

孕妇效应 意即偶然因素随着自己的关注而让你觉得是个普遍现象,就是当人怀孕了就更容易发现孕妇,你开了奔驰就更容易看到奔驰,你拎个LV就发现满大街都是LV。世界其实挺美好的,看人把内心投射在哪里,而要投射前,先让自己的内心美好起来。相由心生,境由心造。

卡耐基先生很久以前就提出一个论点,那就是每个人的特质中大约有 80% 是长处或优点,而 20% 左右是我们的缺点。当一个人只知道自己的缺点是什么,而不知发掘优点时,“视网膜效应” 就会促使这个人发现他身边也有许多人拥有类似的缺点,进而使得他的人际关系无法改善,生活也不快乐,你有没有发现那些常常骂别人很凶的人,其实自己脾气也不太好?这就是“视网膜效应”的影响力。

Comic Sans

一个被无情鄙视的字体。

Comic Sans MS, commonly referred to as Comic Sans, is a sans-serif casual script typeface designed by Vincent Connare and released in 1994 by Microsoft Corporation. It is a casual, non-connecting script inspired by comic book lettering, intended for use in informal documents and educational materials.

The typeface has been supplied with Microsoft Windows since the introduction of Windows 95, initially as a supplemental font in the Windows Plus Pack and later in Microsoft Comic Chat. Describing it, Microsoft has explained that “this casual but legible face has proved very popular with a wide variety of people.”

The typeface’s widespread use, often in situations for which it was not intended, has been criticized.

黑长直

“黑长直”,ACG 界用语,泛指黑色长直发,是日本动漫游戏常见人设,萌属性之一。带有黑长直属性的女性往往都会具备温柔贤淑、善解人意等东方传统特征,而与之同时也可能会附加腹黑、傲娇、女王等其他属性,常常能激发出旁人强烈的爱慕之情。

关于黑长直这个词语主要有三种解释

ACG - Animation, Comic, Game

ACG 文化的发源地是日本,以网络方式传播流入世界各国,在中国存在对于动漫产业的歧视,也包含本国的动漫产业,还停留在发展阶段等原因,导致ACG 文化在中国沦为流行文化的悲惨地步,由于中国二次元宅界的日语水平不高现象普遍存在,流入中国的ACG文化在翻译阶段,含义就被严重扭曲,随着流行的传播,已完全失去了它本来的姿态。ACG为英文 Animation、Comic、Game 的缩写,是动画、漫画、游戏的总称。为华人地区常用的次文化词汇。

现还有 ACGN,为在 ACG(英文 Animation、Comic、Game 的基础上增加了 N(Novel 小说,泛指文字读物(轻小说)),此词汇主要流行于华人区域。详见 ACGN。

外,BGM 是背景音乐(background music),还有 OP、ED 你也应该知道。

Emoji

Emoji (絵文字 or えもじ; Japanese pronunciation: [emodʑi]) are the ideograms or smileys used in Japanese electronic messages and webpages, whose use is spreading outside Japan. Originally meaning pictograph, the word emoji literally means “picture” (e) + “character” (moji). The characters are used much like ASCII emoticons or kaomoji, but a wider range is provided, and the icons are standardized and built into the handsets.

Although originally only available in Japan, some emoji character sets have been incorporated into Unicode, allowing them to be used elsewhere as well. As a result, some phones such as the Windows Phone and the iPhone lines allow access to the symbols without requiring a Japanese carrier. Emoji have also started appearing in emailing services such as Gmail

颜文字

颜文字(日语:颜文字)并不是指有颜色的文字,而是指用文字或各种线条、符号等组成的图画,它是 ASCII Art 的一部分。在电脑(以前是打字机)用标点符号及英文字弄一些十分简单的面部图案。

我们现在所说的「颜文字」,一般是指日式颜文字或日本颜文字。“美国人称「颜文字」为”emoticon" (emotion icon 的简称)。特色是在电脑(以前是打字机)用标点符号及英文字弄一些十分简单的面部图案。最常用的是用 :-) 来表示笑容及以 :-( 代表不开心。用来代表大笑的 XD 也极之流行(这也是港人最常用的美式颜文字)。其它较常用的还有 :-o(吃惊)及 :-p(伸出舌头,即开玩笑)。因为迁就字式,都是向左倒的不完整表情。

Here document

In computer science, a here document (here-document, heredoc, hereis, here-string or here-script) is a file literal or input stream literal: it is a section of a source code file that is treated as if it were a separate file. The term is also used for a form of multiline string literals that use similar syntax, preserving line breaks and other whitespace (including indentation) in the text.

Here documents originate in the Unix shell, and are found in sh, csh, ksh, Bash and zsh, among others. Here document-style string literals are found in various high-level languages, notably the Perl programming language (syntax inspired by Unix shell) and languages influenced by Perl, such as PHP and Ruby. Other high-level languages such as Python and Tcl have other facilities for multiline strings.

The most common syntax for here documents, originating in Unix shells, is << followed by a delimiting identifier, followed, starting on the next line, by the text to be quoted, and then closed by the same identifier on its own line.

$ tr a-z A-Z << END_TEXT
one two three
END_TEXT

Output: ONE TWO THREE

# 这个不算,这是 here string
$ tr a-z A-Z <<< 'one two three'

Output: ONE TWO THREE

$ tr a-z A-Z <<< 'one
two three'

Output:

ONE
TWO THREE
perl:
my $var = <<EOF;
...
...
...
EOF

吃饭睡觉打豆豆

这是一则爆红的网络冷笑话,吃饭睡觉打豆豆,被很多网友用作昵称,也有很多大中青年用作个性签名,归结其寓意有百无聊赖,无所事事之引申义。现在青年人当中流行一种网页小游戏叫“打豆豆”,使吃饭睡觉打豆豆这个笑话融入到了现实生活中,得到很多人的喜爱。打豆豆游戏又叫十字消除。

有个记者去南极采访一群企鹅,他问第一只企鹅:“你每天都干什么?”企鹅说:“吃饭,睡觉,打豆豆!”接着又问第 2 只企鹅,那只企鹅还是说:“吃饭、睡觉、打豆豆!”记者带着困惑问其他的企鹅,答案都一样,就这样一直问了 99 只企鹅。当走到第 100 只小企鹅旁边时,记者走过去问它:每天都做些什么啊?那只小企鹅回答:“吃饭,睡觉。”那人惊奇的又问:“你怎么不打豆豆?”小企鹅撇着嘴巴,瞪了记者一眼说:“我就是豆豆!!!!”

panchromatic

panchromatic

pan + chromatic 全色(全色影像什么的)

Truth or Dare? 真心话大冒险

Truth or Dare? is a party game requiring at least three players. Players are given the choice between answering a question truthfully, or performing a “dare”, both of which are set by the other players. The game is particularly popular among adolescents and children, and is sometimes used as a forfeit when gambling.

The game has existed for centuries, with at least one variant, Questions and Commands, being attested as early as 1712.

在鸟人里也看到了这个词。

Intrusive Thoughts

intrusive-thoughts-wikipedia

知乎: 实际上有 intrusive [ɪn'trusɪv] thoughts 的人有很多,包括丘吉尔首相自己也有。他无法忍受住在楼上,因为他总是有「忍不住要从阳台跳下去」的想法。

Intrusive thoughts are unwelcome involuntary thoughts, images, or unpleasant ideas that may become obsessions, are upsetting or distressing, and can be difficult to manage or eliminate. When they are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and sometimes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the thoughts may become paralyzing, anxiety-provoking, or persistent. Intrusive thoughts may also be associated with episodic memory, unwanted worries or memories from OCD, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, eating disorders, or psychosis. Intrusive thoughts, urges, and images are of inappropriate things at inappropriate times, and they can be divided into three categories: “inappropriate aggressive thoughts, inappropriate sexual thoughts, or blasphemous religious thoughts”.

我也有个很 horrible 的 intrusive thoughts。

Saint Sebastian

Saint Sebastian (died c. 288) was an early Christian saint and martyr. It is said that he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian’s persecution of Christians. He is commonly depicted in art and literature tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows. This is the most common artistic depiction of Sebastian; however, according to legend, he was rescued and healed by Irene of Rome. Shortly afterwards he criticized Diocletian in person and as a result was clubbed to death. He is venerated in the Catholic and Orthodox Churches.

The details of Saint Sebastian’s martyrdom were first spoken of by 4th-century bishop Ambrose of Milan (Saint Ambrose), in his sermon (number 22) on Psalm 118. Ambrose stated that Sebastian came from Milan and that he was already venerated there at that time. Saint Sebastian is a popular male saint, especially among soldiers.

OGC (符号)

OGC 是从网络聊天之表情符号中延伸出,初时意指男性自慰之表象,其中 O 为人体头部, G 为上下两侧为左右手,中间则一横为男性生殖器官,C 则表示为双脚。

如同表情符号失意体前屈(Orz),OGC 后续也延伸出许多变化形式。最常见的如:

G.I. - Government Issue

G.I. is a noun used to describe the soldiers of the U.S. Army and airmen of the U.S. Army Air Forces — and occasionally for U.S. Marines and shorebound sailors — and also for general items of their equipment.

The term G.I. has been used for a long time as an initialism of “Government Issue” or “General Issue”, but it originally referred to “galvanized iron”, as used by the logistics services of the Armed Forces of the United States.

The letters “G.I.” were used to denote equipment made from galvanized iron, such as metal trash cans, in U.S. Army inventories and supply records.

Krypton

Krypton (from Greek: κρυπτός kryptos “the hidden one”) is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquefied air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Krypton is inert for most practical purposes.

Krypton (comics)

Krypton is a fictional planet in the DC Universe and the native world of Superman. In some stories, it is also the native world of Supergirl, Krypto the Superdog, and Power Girl (albeit an alternate universe version in her case, designated “Krypton-Two”). Krypton has been portrayed consistently as having been destroyed just after Superman’s flight from the planet, with exact details of its destruction varying by time period, writers and franchise. Kryptonians were the dominant species on Krypton.

The planet was created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, and was first referred to in Action Comics #1 (June 1938). The planet was given its first full-fledged appearance in Superman #1 (Summer 1939).

Words List 05

OP, ED

op-ed

Izumi Sakai 有很多著名的好听的 OP/ED。

去 “IOE” - 去 IBM, Oracle, EMC

所谓去 “IOE”,是对去 IBMOracleEMC 的简称,三者均为海外 IT 巨头,其中 IBM 代表硬件以及整体解决方案服务商, Oracle 代表数据库,EMC 代表数据存储。

银行在做去“IOE”筹划, 准备在三到五年内逐步淘汰外资,在银行 IT 系统和办公系统实现中资化。

去“IOE”并不是“棱镜”事件带来的新提法。据业内人士介绍,去“IOE”提法最早来自工信部,时间为去年年中。其触发因素为国内厂商中兴、华为在开拓美国市场时遭不公平待遇,美国以威胁信息安全为由将其挡在门外,这被国内市场视为赤裸裸的歧视及其对本土市场的保护。

而“棱镜”事件背后,对国内IT厂商来说,或蕴藏着年千亿级的潜在市场。尽管去“IOE”并非坦途,但接受记者采访的业内人士均认为,国产化进程不可逆。不过要实现核心领域的国产化,在期待政策激励和倾斜的同时,技术上的改进或是根本。

Related: 淘宝阿里巴巴上演去Oracle事件

BNF - Backus Normal Form

In computer science, BNF (Backus Normal Form or Backus–Naur Form) is one of the two main notation techniques for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols; the other main technique for writing context-free grammars is the van Wijngaarden form. They are applied wherever exact descriptions of languages are needed: for instance, in official language specifications, in manuals, and in textbooks on programming language theory.

Many extensions and variants of the original Backus–Naur notation are used; some are exactly defined, including Extended Backus–Naur Form (EBNF) and Augmented Backus–Naur Form (ABNF).

A BNF specification is a set of derivation rules, written as

<symbol> ::= __expression__

BNF’s syntax itself may be represented with a BNF like the following:

<syntax>         ::= <rule> | <rule> <syntax>
<rule>           ::= <opt-whitespace> "<" <rule-name> ">" <opt-whitespace> "::=" <opt-whitespace> <expression> <line-end>
<opt-whitespace> ::= " " <opt-whitespace> | ""
<expression>     ::= <list> | <list> "|" <expression>
<line-end>       ::= <opt-whitespace> <EOL> | <line-end> <line-end>
<list>           ::= <term> | <term> <opt-whitespace> <list>
<term>           ::= <literal> | "<" <rule-name> ">"
<literal>        ::= '"' <text> '"' | "'" <text> "'"

Extended Backus–Naur Form

BNF notations

BNF notations

EBNF is a code that expresses the grammar of a formal language. An EBNF consists of terminal symbols and non-terminal production rules which are the restrictions governing how terminal symbols can be combined into a legal sequence. Examples of terminal symbols include alphanumeric characters, punctuation marks, and white space characters.

The EBNF defines production rules where sequences of symbols are respectively assigned to a nonterminal:

digit excluding zero            = "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ;
digit                           = "0" | digit excluding zero ;
twelve                          = "1", "2" ;
two hundred one                 = "2", "0", "1" ;
three hundred twelve            = "3", twelve ;
twelve thousand two hundred one = twelve, two hundred one ;
natural number                  = digit excluding zero, { digit } ;
integer                         = "0" | [ "-" ], natural number ;

more examples

letter = "A" | "B" | "C" | "D" | "E" | "F" | "G"
       | "H" | "I" | "J" | "K" | "L" | "M" | "N"
       | "O" | "P" | "Q" | "R" | "S" | "T" | "U"
       | "V" | "W" | "X" | "Y" | "Z" ;
digit = "0" | "1" | "2" | "3" | "4" | "5" | "6" | "7" | "8" | "9" ;
symbol = "[" | "]" | "{" | "}" | "(" | ")" | "<" | ">"
       | "'" | '"' | "=" | "|" | "." | "," | ";" ;
character = letter | digit | symbol | "_" ;

identifier = letter , { letter | digit | "_" } ;
terminal = "'" , character , { character } , "'"
         | '"' , character , { character } , '"' ;

lhs = identifier ;
rhs = identifier
     | terminal
     | "[" , rhs , "]"
     | "{" , rhs , "}"
     | "(" , rhs , ")"
     | rhs , "|" , rhs
     | rhs , "," , rhs ;

rule = lhs , "=" , rhs , ";" ;
grammar = { rule } ;

Definite clause grammar

A definite clause grammar (DCG) is a way of expressing grammar, either for natural or formal languages, in a logic programming language such as Prolog. It is closely related to the concept of attribute grammars / affix grammars from which Prolog was originally developed. DCGs are usually associated with Prolog, but similar languages such as Mercury also include DCGs. They are called definite clause grammars because they represent a grammar as a set of definite clauses in first-order logic.

A basic example of DCGs helps to illustrate what they are and what they look like.

sentence --> noun_phrase, verb_phrase.
noun_phrase --> det, noun.
verb_phrase --> verb, noun_phrase.
det --> [the].
det --> [a].
noun --> [cat].
noun --> [bat].
verb --> [eats].

Pseudocode

Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm.

It uses the structural conventions of a programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are not essential for human understanding of the algorithm, such as variable declarations, system-specific code and some subroutines. The programming language is augmented with natural language description details, where convenient, or with compact mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is an efficient and environment-independent description of the key principles of an algorithm. It is commonly used in textbooks and scientific publications that are documenting various algorithms, and also in planning of computer program development, for sketching out the structure of the program before the actual coding takes place.

No standard for pseudocode syntax exists, as a program in pseudocode is not an executable program. Pseudocode resembles, but should not be confused with skeleton programs, including dummy code, which can be compiled without errors. Flowcharts and Unified Modeling Language (UML) charts can be thought of as a graphical alternative to pseudocode, but are more spacious on paper.

参考:

MVC - Model View Control

MVC 模式(Model-View-Controller) 是软件工程中的一种软件架构模式,把软件系统分为三个基本部分:模型(Model)、视图(View)和控制器(Controller)。

MVC 模式最早由 Trygve Reenskaug 在1978年提出,是施乐帕罗奥多研究中心(Xerox PARC)在 20 世纪 80 年代为程序语言 Smalltalk 发明的一种软件设计模式。 MVC 模式的目的是实现一种动态的程式设计,使后续对程序的修改和扩展简化,并且使程序某一部分的重复利用成为可能。除此之外,此模式通过对复杂度的简化,使程序结构更加直观。软件系统通过对自身基本部分分离的同时也赋予了各个基本部分应有的功能。专业人员可以通过自身的专长分组:

沉锚效应

沉锚效应,心理学名词,指的是人们在对某人某事做出判断时,易受第一印象或第一信息支配,就像沉入海底的锚一样把人们的思想固定在某处。作为一种心理现象,沉锚效应普遍存在于生活的方方面面。第一印象和先入为主是其在社会生活中的表现形式。

心理沙发客 06:沉锚效应 (心理 FM:12 : 00)

鸟笼效应

“鸟笼效应”是一个很有意思的规律,人们会在偶然获得一件原本不需要的物品的基础上,自觉不自觉的继续添加更多自己不需要的东西。

1907 年,詹姆斯从哈佛大学退休,同时退休的还有他的好友物理学家卡尔森。一天,两人打赌。詹姆斯说:“我一定会让你不久就养上一只鸟的。”卡尔森不以为然:“我不信!因为我从来就没 有想过要养一只鸟。”没过几天,恰逢卡尔森生日,詹姆斯送上了礼物——一只精致的鸟笼。卡尔森笑了:“我只当它是一件漂亮的工艺品。你就别费劲了。”从此以后,只要客人来访,看见书桌旁那只空荡荡的鸟笼, 他们几乎都会无一例外地问:“教授,你养的鸟什么时候死了?”卡尔森只好一次次地向客人解释:“我从来就没有养过鸟。”然而,这种回答每每换来的却是客人困惑而有些不信任的目光。无奈之下,卡尔森教授只好买了一只鸟,詹姆斯的“鸟笼效应”奏效了。实际上,在我们的身边,包括我们自己,很多时候不是先在自己的心里挂上一只笼子, 然后再不由自主地朝其中填满一些什么东西吗?

Over-the-top content

OTT 服务是指「over-the-top」服务,通常是指内容或服务建构在基础电信服务之上从而不需要网络运营商额外的支持。该概念早期特指音频和视频内容的分发,后来逐渐包含了各种基于互联网的内容和服务。典型的例子有Skype、Google Voice、微信等。网络运营商由于OTT业务的兴起,日益被管道化。

Over-the-top content (OTT) refers to delivery of video, audio and other media over the Internet without a multiple system operator being involved in the control or distribution of the content. The provider may be aware of the contents of the Internet Protocol packets but is not responsible for, nor able to control, the viewing abilities, copyrights, and/or other redistribution of the content. This is in contrast to purchase or rental of video or audio content from an Internet service provider (ISP), such as pay television video on demand or an IPTV video service, like AT&T U-Verse. OTT in particular refers to content that arrives from a third party, such as NowTV, Netflix, WhereverTV, NetD, Hulu, Crackle, WWE Network, RPI TV or myTV, and is delivered to an end user device, leaving the ISP responsible only for transporting IP packets.

Literate programming

Literate programming is an approach to programming introduced by Donald Knuth in which a program is given as an explanation of the program logic in a natural language, such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source code, from which a compilable source code can be generated.

The literate programming paradigm, as conceived by Knuth, represents a move away from writing programs in the manner and order imposed by the computer, and instead enables programmers to develop programs in the order demanded by the logic and flow of their thoughts. Literate programs are written as an uninterrupted exposition of logic in an ordinary human language, much like the text of an essay, in which macros are included to hide abstractions and traditional source code.

Literate programming tools are used to obtain two representations from a literate source file: one suitable for further compilation or execution by a computer, the “tangled” code, and another for viewing as formatted documentation, which is said to be “woven” from the literate source. While the first generation of literate programming tools were computer language-specific, the later ones are language-agnostic and exist above the programming languages.

A good example: Sacha Chua’s Emacs Dotfiles

WTFPL

The WTFPL (Do What the Fuck You Want to Public License) is a permissive way of licensing intellectual property rights, most commonly used as a permissive free software license. It is essentially no different from dedication to the public domain. The original Version 1.0 license, released March 2000, was written by Banlu Kemiyatorn who used it for Window Maker artwork. Sam Hocevar, a French programmer who was the Debian project leader from 17 April 2007 to 16 April 2008, wrote version 2.0. It allows for redistribution and modification of the software under any terms – licensees are encouraged to “do what the fuck [they] want to”. The license was approved as a GPL-compatible free software license by the Free Software Foundation.

比 MIT 还大度的样子……

弥赛亚

弥赛亚(天主教译作默西亚,英语:Messiah),是个圣经词语,与希腊语词基督是一个意思,在希伯来语中最初的意思是受膏者,指的是上帝所选中的人,具有特殊的权力,受膏者是“被委任担当特别职务的人”的意思,是一个头衔或者称号,并不是名字。另有很多艺术作品(清唱剧目、音乐专辑、动漫等)中亦有“弥赛亚”。

Chinese language

Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, which forms one of the branches of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Chinese is spoken by the Han majority and many other ethnic groups in China. More than one billion people, or about one-fifth of the world’s population, speak some form of Chinese as their first language.

Closure (computer programming)

In programming languages, a closure (also lexical closure or function closure) is a function or reference to a function together with a referencing environment—a table storing a reference to each of the non-local variables (also called free variables or upvalues) of that function. A closure—unlike a plain function pointer—allows a function to access those non-local variables even when invoked outside its immediate lexical scope.

The concept of closures was developed in the 1960s and was first fully implemented in 1975 as a language feature in the Scheme programming language to support lexically scoped first-class functions. The use of closures is associated with functional programming languages such as Lisp and ML. Traditional imperative languages such as Algol, C and Pascal do not support returning nested functions as results from higher-order functions. Many modern garbage-collected imperative languages support closures, such as Smalltalk (the first object-oriented language to do so), OCaml, Python, Perl, Ruby, JavaScript, Go, Dart, Scala, Swift, C#, Rust, Julia and C++ since C++11.

话说因为 JavaScript(ES6 之前) 没有 block level 的作用域,大家都用 Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE) 来保护(隔离)私有变量。

UGC - User-generated content

User-generated content (UGC) refers to a variety of media available in a range of modern communications technologies. UGC is often produced through open collaboration: it is created by goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product or service of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike.

If and only if

IFF: if and only if. ↔ ⇔ ≡

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

In that it is biconditional, the connective can be likened to the standard material conditional (“only if”, equal to “if … then”) combined with its reverse (“if”); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other, i.e., either both statements are true, or both are false. It is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English “if and only if”, with its pre-existing meaning. There is nothing to stop one from stipulating that we may read this connective as “only if and if”, although this may lead to confusion.

Axiom

An axiom, or postulate, is a premise or starting point of reasoning. As classically conceived, an axiom is a premise so evident as to be accepted as true without controversy. The word comes from the Greek ἀξίωμα (āxīoma) ‘that which is thought worthy or fit’ or ‘that which commends itself as evident.’ As used in modern logic, an axiom is simply a premise or starting point for reasoning. Axioms define and delimit the realm of analysis; the relative truth of an axiom is taken for granted within the particular domain of analysis, and serves as a starting point for deducing and inferring other relative truths. No explicit view regarding the absolute truth of axioms is ever taken in the context of modern mathematics, as such a thing is considered to be an irrelevant and impossible contradiction in terms.

Mod (video gaming)

遊戲模組,英文多簡稱為「MOD」、「Mod」(全寫「Modification」),「修改」的名詞含義。 MOD 通常對應可以修改的電子遊戲,因此以電腦遊戲為主。必須依賴與原作品方可執行遊玩。遊戲中的道具、武器、角色、敵人、事物、模式、故事情節等任意部分都可能屬於修改範疇,多見於著名電子遊戲作品,遊戲類型多數為第一人稱射擊遊戲、即時戰略遊戲、角色扮演游戏(非日式)、動作遊戲,著名實例包括红色警戒2、毀滅戰士系列、橫掃千軍、雷神之鎚系列、戰慄時空系列、當個創世神、魔域幻境系列、无冬之夜系列、地牢围攻系列、上古卷軸5和俠盜獵車手系列等。

Per se

per-se

through itself, also “by itself” or “in itself”.

Without referring to anything else, intrinsically, taken without qualifications etc. A common example is negligence per se. See also malum in se.

Moore method

The Moore method is a deductive manner of instruction used in advanced mathematics courses. It is named after Robert Lee Moore, a famous topologist who first used a stronger version of the method at the University of Pennsylvania when he began teaching there in 1911.

The way the course is conducted varies from instructor to instructor, but the content of the course is usually presented in whole or in part by the students themselves. Instead of using a textbook, the students are given a list of definitions and theorems which they are to prove and present in class, leading them through the subject material. The Moore method typically limits the amount of material that a class is able to cover, but its advocates claim that it induces a depth of understanding that listening to lectures cannot give.

e.g. & i.e.

eg & ie

exempli gratia (e.g.), usually shortened in English to “for example” (see citation signal). Often confused with id est (i.e.).

Exempli gratia (e.g.) and id est (i.e.) are commonly confused and misused in colloquial English. The former, exempli gratia, means “for example”, and is used before giving examples of something (“I have lots of favorite colors, e.g., blue, green, and hot pink”). The latter, id est, means “that is”, and is used before clarifying the meaning of something, when elaborating, specifying, or explaining rather than when giving examples (“I have lots of favorite colors; i.e., I can’t decide on just one”). In British style, the stops may be omitted: “I have lots of favourite colours, eg blue, green and hot pink”. “I have lots of favourite colours; ie I can’t decide on just one”

Abuse of notation

In mathematics, abuse of notation occurs when an author uses a mathematical notation in a way that is not formally correct but that seems likely to simplify the exposition or suggest the correct intuition (while being unlikely to introduce errors or cause confusion). Abuse of notation should be contrasted with misuse of notation, which should be avoided.

A related concept is abuse of language or abuse of terminology, when not notation but a term is misused. Abuse of language is an almost synonymous expression that is usually used for non-notational abuses. For example, while the word representation properly designates a group homomorphism from a group G to GL(V) where V is a vector space, it is common to call V “a representation of G”. A common abuse of language consists in identifying two mathematical objects that are different but canonically isomorphic. For example, identifying a constant function and its value or identifying to \(\mathbb R^3\) the Euclidean space of dimension three equipped with a Cartesian coordinate system.

The latter uses may achieve clarity in the new area in an unexpected way, but it may borrow arguments from the old area that do not carry over, creating a false analogy.

Words List 06

CC 协议

creative commons

creative commons

Creative Commons,简称 CC 协议,中国大陆正式名称为知识共享,台湾正式名称为创用CC。是一个非营利组织,也是一种创作的授权方式。此组织的主要宗旨是增加创意作品的流通可及性,作为其他人据以创作及共享的基础,并寻找适当的法律以确保上述理念。

署名(BY) — Attribution (BY)

Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only if they give the author or licensor the credits in the manner specified by these.

相同方式共享(SA) — Share-alike (SA)

Licensees may distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs the original work. (See also copyleft.)

非商业性使用(NC) — Non-commercial (NC)

Licensees may copy, distribute, display, and perform the work and make derivative works based on it only for noncommercial purposes.

禁止演绎(ND) — No Derivative Works (ND)

Licensees may copy, distribute, display and perform only verbatim copies of the work, not derivative works based on it.

CC 协议标志

creative commons

creative commons

See Creative Commons License for more.

愤青,五毛,公知

愤青,英语简称 GTK,全称“愤怒青年”,特指一般对社会现状不满,而急于改变现实的青年,后来被简称为愤青,并成为网络语言中的专有词汇,四个字的原称反而不常用了。愤青是国家人民活跃程度的体现,但程度过分、缺乏客观性则会对社会造成负面影响并产生不良风气。

五毛 多含有贬义,是指受雇于中国政府,在网络专门拣有利于当权者的话来说的全职或兼职人员,开始时每发一贴可以得五角人民币,五角钱是书面语,口语即是五毛,所以这样的一群人有五毛之称。也许,随着物价的上涨,每发一贴或许不止五毛了;也许,还会采用其它的给钱方式,而不仅仅是看贴子的数量,但无论怎么说,这一流行说法的基本含义却没有变。官方对这样的人员的正式称呼是网络舆情引导员。有人说五毛指的是网络评论员,其实,这种说法本身就是五毛式的回答。“网络评论员”一指从定义的外延来看更广,不仅可以指五毛,还可以指美分,当然还可以指受雇于个别公司的其它评论员。

公知 从字面可认为是公共知识分子(The Public Intellectual)的缩略词,精确定义是,具有学术背景和专业素质的知识者,进言社会并参与公共事务的行动者,具有批判精神和道义担当的理想者。原意是正面的。在中国社会的一般认知中,“公知”一词更是对那些所谓公正博学,自视甚高,以天下评判为已任,揭露各方面问题,自认担纲启蒙责任,诲人不倦的一群文化人。但在网络和微博中,“公知”意思已经转变为只为少数人说话,甚至成为崇洋媚外人士的一种称号,意义完全相反.

Trinitron

Tranitron

Tranitron

trinitron

特丽珑(台湾译作特丽霓虹,香港有时译作新力单枪)是索尼公司为电视机和显示器的阴极射线管注册的商标。特丽珑阴极显像管又称单枪三束管,为水平方面凸起而垂直方面笔直的柱面显像管。其画面比起同时代的普通显示器颜色更加鲜艳锐利。索尼公司在很长时间内拥有这种设计的专利权,专利权过期后,其他的一些公司将自己生产的的这种荫栅显像管以珑结尾的名字命名。其他公司已经可以使用特丽珑的管设计而无须缴纳专利费。

在一段时间内,采用特丽珑阴极显像管的显示器也被苹果电脑、戴尔、迪吉多公司(Digital Equipment Corporation)、升阳公司(Sun Microsystems)公司和其他一些公司销售。在市场上贴有特丽珑标签的显示器成为了索尼显示器的同义词。

Trinitron was Sony’s brand name for its line of aperture grille based CRTs used in television sets and computer display monitors. One of the first truly new television systems to enter the market since the 1950s, the Trinitron was announced in 1968 to wide acclaim for its bright images, about 25% brighter than common shadow mask televisions of the same era. Constant improvement in the basic technology and attention to overall quality allowed Sony to charge a premium for Trinitron devices into the 1990s.

LOL

It’s original definition was “Laughing out loud” (also written occasionally as “Lots of Laughs”), used as a brief acronym to denote great amusement in chat conversations.

Now, it is overused to the point where nobody laughs out loud when they say it. In fact, they probably don’t even give a shit about what you just wrote. More accurately, the acronym “lol” should be redefined as “Lack of laughter.” (变成了讽刺,感觉有点像 “呵呵”)

Depending on the chatter, its definition may vary. The list of its meanings includes, but is not limited to:

  1. “I have nothing worthwhile to contribute to this conversation.”
  2. “I’m too lazy to read what you just wrote so I’m typing something useless in hopes that you’ll think I’m still paying attention.”
  3. “Your statement lacks even the vaguest trace of humor but I’ll pretend I’m amused.”
  4. “This is a pointless acronym I’m sticking in my sentence just because it’s become so engraved into my mind that when chatting, I MUST use the meaningless sentence-filler ‘lol.’”

(完全就是 “呵呵”。。。)

Voice-Over

Voice-over (also known as off-camera or off-stage commentary) is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative (non-diegetic)—is used in a radio, television production, filmmaking, theatre, or other presentations. The voice-over may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice actor. It is pre-recorded and placed over the top of a film or video and commonly used in documentaries or news reports to explain information.

几个著名的声优(这样说合适不。。。):

Conan Show

Conan is a late-night talk show airing each Monday through Thursday on TBS in the United States. The hourlong show premiered(首次公演) on November 8, 2010, and is hosted by writer, comedian and performer Conan O’Brien. The program’s host previously starred on NBC’s Late Night with Conan O’Brien for 16 years, then presented The Tonight Show for seven months until Jay Leno’s return to his version of The Tonight Show due to the 2010 Tonight Show conflict.

Kama Sutra

印度性福圣经

Ellen Show

The Ellen DeGeneres Show, often shortened to Ellen, is an American television talk show hosted by comedian/actress Ellen DeGeneres. Debuting(/de'bju/ 初次登台) on September 8, 2003, it is produced by Telepictures and airs in syndication, including stations owned by NBCUniversal, in the United States and Canada. For its first five seasons, the show was taped in Studio 11 at NBC Studios in Burbank, California. It later moved to Stage 1 on the nearby Warner Bros. lot. Since the beginning of the sixth season, Ellen has broadcast in high definition. The show has won 36 Daytime Emmy Awards as of 2013. It was announced on March 11, 2013 that the show had been renewed through 2017, which would extend the show through its 14th season.

Mark I

Mark I often refers to the first version of a weapon or military vehicle, and is sometimes used in a similar fashion in civilian product development. In some instances, the Arabic numeral “1” is substituted for the Roman numeral “I”.

“Mark”, meaning “model” or “variant”, can itself be abbreviated “Mk.”

Publish or Perish

Publish or perish” is a phrase coined to describe the pressure in academia to rapidly and continuously publish academic work to sustain or further one’s career.

Frequent publication is one of few methods at scholars’ disposal(安排) to demonstrate academic talent. Successful publications bring attention to scholars and their sponsoring institutions, which can facilitate continued funding and an individual’s progress through their field. In popular academic perception, scholars who publish infrequently, or who focus on activities that do not result in publications, such as instructing undergraduates, may find themselves out of contention for available tenure-track positions. The pressure to publish has been cited as a cause of poor work being submitted to academic journals.

Men List 01

Yoshitomo Nara

slash with a knife

slash with a knife

Yoshitomo Nara (奈良美智 Nara Yoshitomo, born 5 December 1959 in Hirosaki, Japan) is a Japanese artist. He lives and works in Tokyo, though his artwork has been exhibited worldwide. Nara has had nearly 40 solo exhibitions since 1984. He is represented in New York City by Pace Gallery, in Los Angeles by Blum & Poe and in London by Stephen Friedman Gallery.

奈良美智早期的作品以插画性质为多,在 1980 年代后期即发展出以儿童头像为主的角色风格;奈良美智对于有着大眼睛和大头的儿童形象相当着迷,他的特色在于塑造各种带有情感的眼神,其中最具代表性之一为斜视的眼神(有人说是代表愤怒、有人则说是代表了邪恶)。此外,奈良美智的作品几乎不含有透视的背景,而只突显人物。在1990年代后期,他也开始创作立体作品,主要是将画作中的孩童或小狗等,作成大型的立体雕塑,或采用不同媒材拼组的方式构成,如近年在纽约市展出的“流泪的狗”就是以大量胶布为基本材料所组成。

今日他的作品已被许多博物馆收藏,如纽约现代艺术博物馆和洛杉矶当代艺术博物馆等。

陈冠希似乎收藏了很多 Yoshitomo 的画,在他的纪录片里提到了。

Kenichi Ohmae

Kenichi Ohmae

Kenichi Ohmae

大前研一 Kenichi Ohmae(日语:大前 研一/おおまえ けんいち, 1943年2月21日-),日本著名管理学家、经济评论家。出生于福冈县北九州市若松区,是非营利法人一新塾(前身为平成维新の会)的创立者,Ohmae & Associates 公司的 CEO 。Business Breakthrough公司 CEO 兼校长。他是现时世界上有关商业及企业策略的其中一位领导者,以其发展的 3C 模型(或称作战略三角)而知名,被誉为“策略先生”。

主要的学术成就有以下几个:全球化M型社会3C模型(战略三角)、最少世代 (Generation of Minimum)维他命十国(VITAMIN,指越南、印尼、泰国、土耳其、墨西哥、伊朗、伊拉克、尼日利亚、阿根廷和南非这十个新型经济体的开头字母)。

以前看过这个人写自己的经历,说道自己申请大学的时候吹牛逼……(要是他不是日本人,而是印度人,吹牛逼……上天别人也不鸟你。这好像在说,一个人的性质(性格?)只有放到一个特殊的背景下,才能创造自己独特的命运。)

Yoko Ono

Yoko Ono

Yoko Ono

Yoko Ono (オノ・ヨーコ 小野 洋子 Ono Yōko), born February 18, 1933, is a Japanese artist, singer-songwriter, and peace activist. She is the second wife and widow of John Lennon and is also known for her work in avant-garde art, music and filmmaking

Dropping out of the graduate track program in philosophy at Tokyo’s Peers School, Ono moved to New York in 1953 joining her immediate family who were already there. After some time at Sarah Lawrence College, she became involved in New York City’s downtown artists scene, collaborating and working with members in and around the Fluxus group. An independent artist in her own right before meeting Lennon, both the media and the public were critical of her for years. She was repeatedly criticized for her influence over Lennon and his music, and blamed for the breakup of the Beatles: The couple’s early years coincided with the band’s final ones. Her experimental art was also not popularly understood, and, after Lennon’s death, her disagreements with Paul McCartney received as much attention as her billboards and music releases, which the media usually advanced simply as attempts at self-promotion.

Grace Hopper

Grace Hopper

Grace Hopper

Grace Murray Hopper (December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. A pioneer in the field, she was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, and developed the first compiler for a computer programming language. She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first modern programming languages. She is credited with popularizing the term “debugging” for fixing computer glitches(inspired by an actual moth removed from the computer). Owing to the breadth of her accomplishments and her naval rank, she is sometimes referred to as “Amazing Grace”. The U.S. Navy destroyer USS Hopper (DDG-70) is named for her, as was the Cray XE6 “Hopper” supercomputer at NERSC.

她定义了“bug”。

The Everly Brothers

the Everly Brothers

the Everly Brothers

The Everly Brothers were American country-influenced rock and roll singers, known for steel-string guitar playing and close harmony singing. The duo, consisting of Isaac Donald “Don” Everly (born February 1, 1937) and Phillip “Phil” Everly (January 19, 1939 – January 3, 2014), were elected to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986 and the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2001.

Elvis Presley

Elvis Presley

Elvis Presley

Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer, musician, and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as “the King of Rock and Roll”, or simply, “the King”.

In November 1956, he made his film debut in Love Me Tender. … In 1973, Presley was featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of prescription drug abuse severely deteriorated his health, and he died in 1977 at the age of 42.

Presley is one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. Commercially successful in many genres, including pop, blues and gospel, he is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music, with estimated album sales of around 600 million units worldwide. He was nominated for 14 Grammys and won three, receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame.

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan (/ˈdɪlən/; born Robert Allen Zimmerman, May 24, 1941) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, artist, and writer. He has been an influential figure in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly reluctant figurehead of social unrest. A number of Dylan’s early songs, such as “Blowin’ in the Wind” and “The Times They Are a-Changin’”, became anthems for the US civil rights and anti-war movements. Leaving behind his initial base in the culture of the folk music revival, Dylan’s six-minute single “Like a Rolling Stone” radically altered the parameters of popular music in 1965. His recordings employing electric instruments attracted denunciation and criticism from others in the folk movement.

Men List 03

Bill Joy

Bill Joy (威廉·纳尔逊·乔伊)

Bill Joy (威廉·纳尔逊·乔伊)

William Nelson Joy (born November 8, 1954) is an American computer scientist. Joy co-founded Sun Microsystems in 1982 along with Vinod Khosla, Scott McNealy and Andreas von Bechtolsheim, and served as chief scientist at the company until 2003. He played an integral role in the early development of BSD UNIX while a graduate student at Berkeley, and he is the original author of the vi text editor. He also wrote the 2000 essay “Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us”, in which he expressed deep concerns over the development of modern technologies. Some of his most notable contributions were the ex and vi editors and csh.

段子

BBN had a big contract to implement TCP/IP, but their stuff didn’t work, and grad student Joy’s stuff worked. So they had this big meeting and this grad student in a T-shirt shows up, and they said, “How did you do this?” And Bill said, “It’s very simple — you read the protocol and write the code.

如此的牛逼,vi 也是他写的……Sam 好像也是。

keywords: SUN, UNIX, TCP/IP, Berkeley, vi, csh,

John D. Carmack

John Carmack (約翰·卡馬克)

John Carmack (約翰·卡馬克)

John D. Carmack (born August 20, 1970) is an American game programmer and the co-founder of Id Software. Carmack was the lead programmer of the Id video games Commander Keen, Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, Quake, Rage and their sequels. Carmack is best known for his innovations in 3D graphics, and is also a rocketry enthusiast and the founder and lead engineer of Armadillo Aerospace. In August 2013, Carmack took the position of CTO at Oculus VR.

卡马克成长于美国堪萨斯城中心区的一个家庭,早年就对电脑产生了浓厚的兴趣。他后来从肖尼东高中毕业,随后考入了堪萨斯城的密苏里州州立大学。但是在两个学期之后,他从学校退学了,成为了一名自由程序员。

David Neil “Dave” Cutler, Sr

Dave Cutler (大卫·卡特勒)

Dave Cutler (大卫·卡特勒)

他是一位传奇程序员,是 VMS 和 Windows NT 的首席设计师,被人们称为“操作系统天神”。

David Neil “Dave” Cutler, Sr. (born March 13, 1942) is an American software engineer, designer and developer of several operating systems including Windows NT at Microsoft and RSX-11M, VMS and VAXELN at Digital Equipment Corporation.

Cutler was also known for his disdain(蔑视) for all things Unix.

keywords: Windows NT, VMS, DEC, MS, Windows Azure, X Box

Donald Knuth

Donald Knuth (唐纳德·克努特)

Donald Knuth (唐纳德·克努特)

Donald Ervin Knuth (/kəˈnuːθ/ kə-nooth; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and Professor Emeritus(名誉退休的) at Stanford University.

He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming.(TAOCP). Knuth has been called the “father” of the analysis of algorithms. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces.

Hopper & Knuth

Hopper & Knuth

As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, and designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. As a member of the academic and scientific community, Knuth is strongly opposed to the policy of granting software patents. He has expressed his disagreement directly to both the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organization.

He is also the author of Surreal Numbers.

In 2006, Knuth was diagnosed with prostate(前列腺) cancer

克努特至今进行了两大工程,一个已经完成,一个尚未完成。第一个大工程就是《计算机程序设计的艺术》系列,开始于他念博士期间,计划出七卷,第一卷《基本算法》于1968年出版,第二卷《半数字化算法》于 1969 年出版,第三卷《排序与搜索》于 1973 年出版,第四卷 A 《组合算法》已于 2011 年出版。这个工程为什么前紧后松,长期停顿呢?原来,前三卷书出版以后,克努特根据自己在校对清样时的感受,决心对排版技术进行彻底改造,因此中止了第一个工程,而开始其第二个工程。这个工程花费了克努特整整 9 年的时间和精力,结果就是对整个西文印刷行业带来了革命性变革的TEX排版软件和 METAFONT 字型设计软件。

(他怎么能在读博士期间就想好要写书,洋洋洒洒写了几十年。。。)

补充阅读:八卦高德纳

Ken Thompson

Ken thompson (肯·汤普森)

Ken thompson (肯·汤普森)

Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science. Having worked at Bell Labs for most of his career, Thompson designed and implemented the original Unix operating system. He also invented the B programming language, the direct predecessor to the C programming language, and was one of the creators and early developers of the Plan 9 operating systems. Since 2006, Thompson works at Google, where he co-invented the Go programming language.

Other notable contributions included his work on regular expressions and early computer text editors QED and ed, the definition of the UTF-8 encoding, his work on computer chess that included creation of endgame tablebases and the chess machine Belle.

段子

装了 UNIX 的 PDP-11 最早被安装在 Bell Lab 里供大家日常使用。很快大家就发现 Ken 爷爷总能进入他们的帐户,获得最高权限。 Bell Lab 里的科学家都心比天高,当然被搞得郁闷无比。于是有高手怒了,跳出来分析了 UNIX 代码,找到后门,修改代码,然后重新编译了整个 UNIX。就在大家都以为“这个世界清净了”的时候,他们发现 Ken 爷爷还是轻而易举地拿到他们的帐户权限,百思不解后,只好继续郁闷。谁知道这一郁闷,就郁闷了 14 年,直到 Ken 爷爷道出个中缘由。原来,代码里的确有后门,但后门不在 Unix 代码里,而在编译Unix代码的C编译器里。每次 C 编译器编译 UNIX 的代码,就自动生成后门代码。而整个 Bell Lab 的人,都是用 Ken 爷爷的 C 编译器。:D

Rob Pike

Rob Pike (罗布·派克)

Rob Pike (罗布·派克)

Robert Pike (born 1956) is a Canadian software engineer and author. He is best known for his work at Bell Labs, where he was a member of the Unix team and was involved in the creation of the Plan 9 from Bell Labs and Inferno operating systems, as well as the Limbo programming language.

He also co-developed the Blit graphical terminal for Unix; before that he wrote the first window system for Unix in 1981. Pike is the sole inventor named in AT&T’s US patent 4,555,775 or “backing store patent” that is part of the X graphic system protocol and one of the first software patents.

Over the years Pike has written many text editors; sam and acme are the most well known and are still in active use and development.

Pike, with Brian Kernighan, is the co-author of The Practice of Programming and The Unix Programming Environment. With Ken Thompson he is the co-creator of UTF-8. Pike also developed lesser systems such as the vismon program for displaying images of faces of email authors.

Pike is married to Renée French, and currently works for Google, where he is involved in the creation of the programming languages Go and Sawzall.

Dennis M. Richie

Dennis M. Richie (丹尼斯·里奇)

Dennis M. Richie (丹尼斯·里奇)

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – c. October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist. He created the C programming language and, with long-time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix operating system. Ritchie and Thompson received the Turing Award from the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal of Technology from President Clinton in 1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent Technologies System Software Research Department when he retired in 2007. He was the “R” in K&R C and commonly known by his username dmr.

Ritchie was found dead on October 12, 2011, at the age of 70 at his home in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, where he lived alone. First news of his death came from his former colleague, Rob Pike. The cause and exact time of death have not been disclosed. He had been in frail health for several years following treatment for prostate cancer and heart disease. His death came a week after the death of Steve Jobs but did not receive as much media coverage. Computer historian Paul E. Ceruzzi said after his death: “Ritchie was under the radar. His name was not a household name at all, but… if you had a microscope and could look in a computer, you’d see his work everywhere inside.”

Edsger W. Dijkstra

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (艾兹格·迪科斯彻)

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (艾兹格·迪科斯彻)

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛtsxər ˈʋibə ˈdɛikstra] ( listen); 11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch computer scientist. He received the 1972 Turing Award for fundamental contributions to developing programming languages, and was the Schlumberger Centennial Chair of Computer Sciences at The University of Texas at Austin from 1984 until 2000.

Shortly before his death in 2002, he received the ACM PODC Influential Paper Award in distributed computing for his work on self-stabilization of program computation. This annual award was renamed the Dijkstra Prize the following year, in his honor.

Dijkstra was known for his habit of carefully composing manuscripts with his fountain pen. The manuscripts are called EWDs, since Dijkstra numbered them with EWD, his initials, as a prefix.

  1. 提出 “goto 有害论”;
  2. 提出信号量和 PV 原语;
  3. 解决了“哲学家聚餐”问题;
  4. 最短路径算法(SPF)和银行家算法的创造者;
  5. 第一个 Algol 60 编译器的设计者和实现者;
  6. THE 操作系统的设计者和开发者;

与 D. E. Knuth 并称为我们这个时代最伟大的计算机科学家的人。与癌症抗争多年,于 2002 年 8 月 6 日在荷兰 Nuenen 自己的家中去世,享年 72 岁。

他老妈似乎是个数学家。

Anders Hejlsberg

Anders Hejlsberg (安德斯·海尔斯伯格)

Anders Hejlsberg (安德斯·海尔斯伯格)

Anders Hejlsberg (born December 1960) is a prominent Danish software engineer who co-designed several popular and commercially successful programming languages and development tools. He was the original author of Turbo Pascal and the chief architect of Delphi. He currently works for Microsoft as the lead architect of C# and core developer on TypeScript.

Turbo Pascal 编译器的主要作者, Delphi 和 C# 之父,同时也是 .NET 创立者。

《Borland 传奇》里讲了他写的汇编是如何的牛逼轰轰,以及 Gates 怎么亲自去挖他到微软。

随便翻翻 01

Language agnostic

What’s your favorite “programmer” cartoon?

xkcd comics

xkcd comics

折腾 Emacs

如果装了 Visual Studio,那么,在 Visual Studio 的菜单 Tools 下面可以通过 External Tools 加入一个自定义的外部工具。外部工具的命令可以使用上面定义的 emacsclientw.exe ,参数那栏加上 -n -a "D:\emacs\bin\runemacs.exe" +$(CurLine) $(ItemPath)

28 个 Unix/Linux 的命令行神器 | 酷 壳

28个Unix/Linux的命令行神器 | 酷 壳

应该知道的Linux技巧 | 酷 壳

应该知道的Linux技巧 | 酷 壳

Try IRC

说说你觉得最狂霸酷炫屌炸天的命令

说说你觉得最狂霸酷炫屌炸天的命令

Keen Team: 这群执著的人和那些纯粹的事

Keen Team: 这群执著的人和那些纯粹的事

Keen Team

Keen Team

  1. 出名的都在安全公司,无名的都在自己的圈子,匿名的都在国家人才库
  2. 团队为了准备比赛,‘闭关’了两个多月,每天夜以继日,工作时间超过 20 个小时,最终成功挑战了世界上最安全的操作系统。15 秒攻破 OS X,20 秒攻破 Windows 8.1,这些闪亮瞬间都是团队平时努力和专注的结果。”

自由软件之父 Richard Stallman 访华

自由软件之父Richard Stallman访华

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman

我去了,哈哈~

EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable Display Editor

EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable Display Editor

RMS 的论文(未读)

Steve Yegge:编程的肮脏小秘密

Steve Yegge:编程的肮脏小秘密

那么结果如何呢?在学期末,Yeev 一分钟打对了 60 个词,而且他甚至不是班上最好的。这可是 45 天,每天 50 分钟的付出,并且充满了乐趣。实际上,随着更好的软件和键盘出现,现在的打字学习可能就是30 天,每天 30 分钟的付出。现在 Yeev 可以每分钟打120个词。他进大学时还只是每分钟打大约 60 到 65 个词,但他决定提高速度,在他遇见了一个叫凯利的同级学生,他通过UNIX上的“talk”软件每分钟能打 120 个词。在他们较量时,Yeev 能够感受到她的不耐烦。他提到了这点,她回应到,“你该看看我在 Dvorak 键盘上打字时的水平”。 Yeev 在那时已经深谙社交了,他咬紧牙关,不在打任何东西。但关于 Yeev 的故事已经足够了,毕竟他是人们虚构的。

另外一点就是外行的代码往往是最短的。他们不会花费其他努力来注释代码。如果他们的打字技巧太差,他们可能会选择用一种偷懒的方式来注释代码。难道他们是在用手肘打字?他们甚至不在意格式,这可以说是一个程序猿所犯的最大的罪。这还不是最糟糕的,最糟糕的是错拼标识符后还不修正过来,因为有太多地方需要修正。

承认吧,其实就是自己懒而已。没有其他借口了。我有一个朋友,叫约翰,只能使用一只手,但是他却能一分钟打 70 个单词。他创造了自己的小技巧。他没有找借口,而是在找借口的人中间默默坚持着。感到羞愧吧!如果你双手健全,完全正确地一分钟打 70 个单词是轻而易举的,甚至更快。打字并没有你想的那么难,它比你想得更有用。

既然你今天就要开始学,你最好在德沃夏克键盘上学习,它可以促进你的学习速度,给自己一个有利的开头。

Peter Norvig:自学编程,十年磨一剑

Peter Norvig:自学编程,十年磨一剑

  1. 你们着什么急? (21 天系列之类)
  2. 也不是 10 年, 是 10000 小时
  3. 你想当程序员么?
  4. 所以尽管去书店大买 Java/Ruby/Javascript/PHP 书籍吧;你也许会发现他们真的挺管用。但是这样做不会改变你的人生,也不会让你在整体经验上有什么提高。24 小时,几天,几周,做一个真正的程序员?光靠读书可读不出来。你尝试过连续 24 个月不懈努力提高自己么?呵呵,如果你做到了,好吧,那么你开始上路了……

How to be a Programmer

A Short, Comprehensive, and Personal Summary

这一部分实在太多,而且很细节,以后再看(2014-06-02)

对九个超级程序员的采访

对九个超级程序员的采访 | 酷 壳 - CoolShell.cn

  1. 你们觉得对程序员最重要的事是什么?
  2. 关于编程,你们认为接下来的大事是什么?X-Oriented编程,Y语言,量子电脑 ?
  3. 如果你有3个月学一个相对较新的技术,你会学什么?
  4. 什么工具是你的最爱(操作系统,编程/脚本语言,文本编辑器,版本管理,shell,数据库,或其它没它你活不了的工具),为什么不是别的?
  5. 你最喜欢的编程书是什么?
  6. 你最喜欢的和编程无关的一本书是什么?

随便翻翻 02

看看 9 种编程语言的发明者是怎么说的

看看 9 种编程语言的发明者是怎么说的

  1. Ryan Dahl:Node.js ==> 处理 I/O, Node 鼓励人们用非阻塞的模式
  2. Guido van Rossum:Python ==> 必要时,要用高效的语言来取代之,比如 C 和 C++
  3. Yukihiro Matsumoto :Ruby ==> 让程序员更开心
  4. Dmitry Jemerov:Kotlin ==> 开发更复杂,更高性,高频率交互的程序, 静态语言 Kotlin is for you
  5. Martin Odersky:Scala ==> 将函数式和面向对象编程结合成一个包,给开发人员提供一个强大的语言,让人感觉他有很强的互补性
  6. Bjarne Stroustrup:C++ ==> 在基础架构方面有无与伦比的优势
  7. Lars Bak:Dart ==> With Dart 虚拟机,可以更快的运行和启动
  8. Stefan Karpinski:Julia ==> 一种动态语言,非常简单的编程模型。但它有极高的效率
  9. Rich Hickey :Clojure ==> 为 JVM 发明一种动态的,函数式编程语言

游戏策划的“落地思维”

游戏策划的“落地思维”

于是乎,我们看到了一堆嘴炮策划、口述策划,整日天马行空、侃侃而谈,头脑风暴的会议一个接一个,却始终无法提出可行方案,坑了一个又一个团队,误了一个又一个项目。最后,游戏圈最不缺的就是评论家,吐槽拍砖样样行,唯独不会解决问题。

心目中的编程高手系列

心目中的编程高手系列

(很幽默,被百度百科收录了好几个)

上面的链接已经不能用了。赶紧找了一个备份。版权属于 g9 大神所有。

先不修改中英文之间(missing)的空格了。

-- Bill Joy MIT BBS 上说微软电话面试的一道题就是“Who do you think is the best
coder, and why?”。我觉得挺有意思的,也来凑个热闹。排名不分先后。

心目中的编程高手 (1)

Bill Joy, 前任 Sun 的首席科学家,当年在 Berkeley 时主持开发了最早版本的 BSD。他
还是 vi 和 csh 的作者。当然,Csh Programming Considered Harmful 是另一个话题乐
。据说他想看看自己能不能写个操作系统,就在三天里写了个自己的 Unix, 也就是 BSD
的前身。当然是传说了,但足见他的功力。另一个传说是,1980 年初的时候,DARPA 让
BBN在 Berkley Unix 里加上 BBN 开发的 TCP/IP 代码。但当时还是研究生的 B 伯伯怒了
,拒绝把 BBN TCP/IP 加入 BSD,因为他觉得 BBN 的 TCP/IP 写得不好。于是 B 伯伯出
手了,端的是一箭封喉,很快就写出了高性能的伯克利版 TCP/IP。当时 BBN 和 DARPA 签
了巨额合同开发 TCP/IP Stack,谁知他们的代码还不如一个研究生的好。于是他们开会。
只见当时 B 伯伯穿个 T-shirt 出现在会议室 (当时穿 T-shirt 不象现在,还是相当散漫
的哈)。只见 BBN 问:你怎么写出来的?而 B 伯伯答:简单,你读协议,然后编程就行了
。最令偶晕倒的是,B 伯伯硕士毕业后决定到工业界发展,于是就到了当时只有一间办公
室的 Sun, 然后他就把 Sparc 设计出来乐... 象这种软硬通吃的牛人,想不佩服都不行的
说。据 Bill Joy 的同事说,一般开会的时候 B 伯伯总是拿一堆杂志漫不经心地读。但往
往在关键之处,B 伯伯发言,直切要害,提出漂亮的构想,让同事们彻底崩溃。对了,他
还是 Java Spec 和 JINI 的主要作者之一。

心目中的编程高手 (2)

John Carmack,ID Software 的 founder 和 Lead Programmer。上个月和一个搞图形的师
兄聊天,他竟然不知道 John Carmack, 也让偶大大地晕了一把。不过也许搞研究的和搞实
战的多少有些隔吧。想必喜欢第一人称射击游戏的都知道 J 哥哥。90 年代初只要能在 PC
上搞个小动画都能让人惊叹一番的时候,J 哥哥就推出了石破天惊的 Castle Wolfstein,
然后再接再励,doom, doomII, Quake... 每次都把 3D 技术推到极致。J 哥哥的简历上说
自己的专长是"Exhaust 3D technology",真是牛人之言不我欺的说。做 J 哥哥这样的人
是很幸福的,因为各大图形卡厂家一有了新产品就要向他“进贡”,不然如果他的游戏不支
持哪种卡,哪种卡基本就会夭折乐。当初 MS 的 Direct3D 也得听取他的意见,修改了不
少 API。当然,J 哥哥在结婚前十数年如一日地每天编程 14 小时以上,也是偶们凡人望
尘莫及的。对了,J 哥哥高中肆业 (?!),可以说是自学成才。不过呢,谁要用这个例子来
为自己学习不好辩护,就大错特错了。那 Leonardo Da Vinci 还是自学成才呢 (人是私生
子,不能上学)。普通人和天才还是有区别的。对了,其实偶们叫“达分奇”是相当不对的,
因为 Vinci 是地名,而 Da Vinci 就是从 Vinci 来的人的意思。换句话说,Leonardo Da
Vinci 就是“从 Vinci 来的 Leonardo”的意思。叫别人“Da Vinci”就不知所谓乐。嗯,扯
远了,打住。

心目中的编程高手 (3)

David Cutler,VMS 和 Windows NT 的首席设计师,去微软前号称硅谷最牛的 kernel 开
发员。当初他和他的手下在微软一周内把一个具备基本功能的 bootable kernel 写出来,
然后说:"who can't write an OS in a week?",也是牛气冲天的说。顺便说一句,D 爷
爷到 NT3.5 时,管理 1500 名开发员,自己还兼做设计和编程,不改 coder 本色啊。D爷
爷天生脾气火爆,和人争论时喜欢双手猛击桌子以壮声势。:-) 日常交谈 F-word 不离口
。他面试秘书时必问:"what do you think of the word 'FUCK'?",让无数美女刹羽而归
。终于有一天,一个同样火爆的女面对这个问题脱口而出:"That's my favorite word"。
于是她被录取乐,为 D 爷爷工作到 NT3.5 发布。

心目中的编程高手 (4)

Donald E. Knuth。高爷爷其实用不着偶多说。学编程的不知道他就好像学物理的不知道牛
顿,学数学的不知道欧拉,学音乐的不知道莫扎特,学 Delphi 的不知到 Anders
Hejlsberg,或者学 Linux 不知道 Linus Torvalds 一样,不可原谅啊。:-) 为了让文章
完整,就再罗唆几句吧。高爷爷本科时就开始给行行色色的公司写各种稀奇古怪的编译器
挣外快了。他卖给别人时收一两千美元,那些公司拿了 code,加工一下卖出去就是上万上
十万。不过也没见高爷爷不爽过,学者本色的说。想想那可是 60 年代初啊,高爷爷写编
译器写多了,顺带就搞出了个 Attribute Grammar 和 LR(k),大大地造福后人啊。至于高
爷爷在 CalTech 的编程比赛 (有 Alan Kay 得众多高高手参加) 总是第一,写的 Tex 到
86 年就 code freeze,还附带 2^n 美分奖励等等都是耳熟能详,偶就不饶舌乐。顺便说
一下,高老大爷是无可争议的写作高手。他给 Concrete Mathematics 写的前言可谓字字
铿锵,堪为前言的典范。他的技术文章也是一绝,文风细致,解释精当,而且没有学究气
,不失轻快跳脱。记得几年前读 Concrete Mathematics,时不时开怀大笑,让老妈极其郁
闷,觉得我 nerdy 到家,不可救药。其实呢,子非鱼,安知鱼之乐,更不知那完全是高爷
爷的功劳。说到写作高手,不能不提 Stephen A. Cook。他的文章当年就被我们的写作老
师极力推荐,号称典雅文风的样本。库爷爷一头银发,身材颀长,总是面带谦和的微笑,
颇有仙风道骨,正好和他的仙文相配的说。高爷爷其实还是开源运动的先驱。虽然他没有
象 Richard Stallman 那样八方奔走,但他捐献了好多作品,都可以在网上看到,比如著
名的 Mathematical Writing,MMIXWare,The Tex Book 等,更不用说足以让他流芳百世
的Tex 乐。

心目中的编程高手 (5)

Ken Thompson,C 语言前身 B 语言的作者,Unix 的发明人之一 (另一个是 Dennis M.
Riche 老大,被尊为 DMR),Belle(一个厉害的国际象棋程序) 的作者之一,操作系统Plan
9 的主要作者 (另一个是大牛人 Rob Pike, 前不久被 google 挖走了)。Ken 爷爷也算是
计算机历史上开天辟地的人物了。1969 年还是计算机史前时代,普通人都认为只有大型机
才能运行通用的操作系统,小型机只有高山仰止的份儿。至于用高级语言来写操作系统,
更是笑谈。Ken 爷爷自然不是池中物,于是他和 DMR 怒了,在 1969 年到 1970 间用汇编
在 PDP-7 上写出了 UNIX 的第一个版本。他们并不知道,一场轰轰烈烈的 UNIX 传奇由此
拉开了序幕。Ken 爷爷在 1971 年又把 Unix 用 C 重写,于是 C 在随后 20 年成就了不
知多少豪杰的梦想和光荣。Ken 爷爷还有段佳话:装了 UNIX 的 PDP-11 最早被安装在
Bell Lab 里供大家日常使用。很快大家就发现 Ken 爷爷总能进入他们的帐户,获得最高
权限。Bell Lab 里的科学家都心比天高,当然被搞得郁闷无比。于是有高手怒了,跳出来
分析了 UNIX 代码,找到后门,修改代码,然后重新编译了整个 UNIX。就在大家都以为“
这个世界清净了”的时候,他们发现 Ken 爷爷还是轻而易举地拿到他们的帐户权限,百思
不解后,只好继续郁闷。谁知道这一郁闷,就郁闷了 14 年,直到 Ken 爷爷道出个中缘由
。原来,代码里的确有后门,但后门不在 Unix 代码里,而在编译 Unix 代码的 C 编译器
里。每次 C 编译器编译 UNIX 的代码,就自动生成后门代码。而整个 Bell Lab 的人,都
是用 Ken 爷爷的 C 编译器。

心目中的编程高手 (6)

Rob Pike, AT&T Bell Lab 前 Member of Technical Staff,现在 google 研究操作系统
。罗伯伯是 Unix 的先驱,是贝尔实验室最早和 Ken Thompson 以及 Dennis M. Ritche
开发 Unix 的猛人,UTF-8 的设计人。他还在美国名嘴 David Letterman 的晚间节目上露
了一小脸,一脸憨厚地帮一胖子吹牛搞怪。让偶佩服不已的是,罗伯伯还是 1980 年奥运
会射箭的银牌得主。他也是个颇为厉害的业余天文学家,设计的珈玛射线望远镜差点被
NASA用在航天飞机上。他还是两本经典,The Unix Programming Environment 和 The
Practice of Programming 的作者之一。如果初学者想在编程方面精益求精,实在该好好
读读这两本书。它们都有中文版的说。罗伯伯还写出了 Unix 下第一个基于位图的窗口系
统,并且是著名的 blit 终端的作者。当然了,罗伯伯还是号称锐意革新的操作系统,
Plan9,的主要作者。可惜的是,Plan9 并没有引起多少人的注意。罗伯伯一怒之下,写出
了振聋发聩的雄文 Systems Software Research is Irrelevant,痛斥当下系统开发不思
进取,固步自封的弊病。虽然这篇文章是罗伯伯含忿出手,颇有偏激之词,但确实道出了
系统开发的无奈:开发周期越来越长,代价越来越大,用户被统一到少数几个系统上,结
果越来越多的活动是测量和修补,而真正的革新越来越少。就在罗伯伯郁闷之极的时候,
google 登门求贤来乐。如果说现在还有一家大众公司在不遗余力地把系统开发推向极致的
话,也就是 google 乐。随便看看 google 的成果就知道了。具有超强容错和负载平衡能
力的分布式文件系统 GFS(现在能够用 100,000 台廉价 PC 搭起一个巨型分布系统,并且
高效便宜地进行管理的系统也不多哈),大规模机器学习系统 (拼写检查,广告匹配,拼音
搜寻。。。哪个都很牛的说),更不用说处理海量并行计算的各式 google 服务了。Rob 在
System Software Research is Irrelevant 里萧瑟地说现在没有人再关心系统研究的前沿
成果了。想不到他错了,因为 google 关心。google 网络了大批功成名就的牛人,还有大
量初生牛犊般博士做开发,显然不是没事耍酷,而是因为它们的开发总是试图吸取系统研
究的最新成果。想必 Rob Pike 在 google 很幸福。愿他做出更棒的系统。

心目中的编程高手 (7)

Dennis M. Ritchie 既然 Ken Thompson 是我的偶像,新闻组上人称 DMR 的 Dennis M.
Ritchie 自然也是,毕竟两人共同缔造了 UNIX,而 Dennis 几乎独力把 C 搞大 (当然,C
的前身是 B,而 B 是 Ken Thompson 一手做出来的)。J D 两人 1983 年分享图灵奖,是
有史以来少数几个因工程项目得奖的工程师 (本来是唯一的一对儿,但 Alan Kay 才因为
SmallTalk 得奖,所以就成了唯二的乐)。一个人一生能做出一个卓越的系统已经不易,
DMR 的 C 和 UNIX 长盛不衰近 30 年,至今生机勃勃,DMR 此生可以无憾的说。D 爷爷也
算有家学渊源:他老爸在 AT&T 贝尔实验室工作了一辈子,并在电路设计方面卓有成就,
还出了本颇有影响的书 The Design of Switching Circuits,据说在交换理论和逻辑设计
方面有独到的论述。当然,D 爷爷和他老爸是不同时代的人:他老爸的研究成形于晶体管
发明之前,而 D 爷爷的工作离了晶体管就玩儿不转乐。:-D 不要看 D 爷爷搞出了 C,其
实他最爱的编程语言是 Alef,在 Plan9 上运行,支持并行编程。Alef 的语法和 C 相似
,但数据类型和执行方式都和 C 大大不同。说到语言,D 爷爷对后来人有非常中肯的建议
:抱着学习的目的来开发你自己的语言,不要冀望于它被众人接受。这个建议不光对语言
开发有用,也适用于其它大型系统的开发。别的不说,DMR 后来领导自己的团队在 1995
年和 1996 分别推出了 Plan9 和 Inferno 操作系统,又用多少人知道呢?其实,D 爷爷
当初也没想过 C 会风行世界。他开发 C 的初衷和 Eric S. Raymond 在 Cathedral and
Bazaar 里阐述的一样,就是要消除自己对现有工具的不爽之处。谁知 D 爷爷无心插柳,C
竟然受到众多程序员的狂热拥戴,连 D 爷爷自己都大惑不解。在一次采访中 D 爷爷说大
概那是因为 C 的抽象程度碰巧既满足了程序员的要求,又容易实现。当然 C 一度是 Unix
上的通用语言也是原因。但不管怎么说,D 爷爷对编程语言出色的审美意识奠定了 C 广为
流传的基础。最后八卦一下。D 爷爷的业余爱好和 NBA 大牛 Karl Malone 一样:开卡车
。不过 D 爷爷更喜欢开 NASCAR,而 KM 独爱巨无霸。J D 爷爷自称心中不供偶像,如果
一定要说一个,那就是 Ken Thompson 了。现在 Ken 爷爷退休当飞机教练去了,而 D 爷
爷当了贝尔实验室系统开发部的头,整日忙于开支票。他俩合作 20 年,屡屡创造历史。
这段令人神往的佳话,也就长留你我心中乐。P.S.,很多人都以为 Brian W. Kernighan
是C 的作者。其实 BWK 只是写了那本经典 K&R C。据 D 爷爷说,他,Ken 和 Kernighan
三人中,Kernighan 最能写文章,他次之,而 Ken 写得最少;但说到编程,Ken 爷爷才是
当之无愧的老大。

心目中的编程高手 (8)

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra 对,就是 E.W. Dijkstra. 一提到 EWD,很多人就会想起找最短路
径的 Dijkstra Algorithm,就好像一提到 Sir. Tony Hoare,就想起 Quick Sort 一样。
其实这些个算法不过是两个牛人在他们职业生涯中最琐碎的贡献。比如 Dijkstra 算法,
无非是戴爷爷在 1956 年为了展示新计算机 ARMAC 的计算能力,初试身手的成果,属于他
的算法处女作。据戴爷爷自述,他搞出最短路径算法的时候连纸笔都没用。当时他和他老
婆在阿姆斯特丹一家咖啡厅的阳台上晒太阳喝咖啡,突然就把这个算法想出来乐。而且当
时的算法研究还比较原始,牛人们忙着用计算机搞数值计算,对离散算法不屑一顾。那时
连一个象样的专注于离散算法的专业期刊都没有。戴爷爷于是推迟发表这个算法。直到
1959 年,他才把这个算法发表在 Numerische Mathematik 的创刊号上,权为捧场。:-)
EWD 在多个领域牛气冲天,端的是理论和编程两手硬的高手。只不过他的很多工作比较深
刻,学校的老先生们觉得本科生接受不了,不给本科生讲而已。戴爷爷大概因为最短路径
算法一战成名,于是有人请他参加另一台计算机 X1 的设计工作,并且把设计实时中断系
统的任务派给了他。现在看来实时中断也许不算什么,但要知到,X1 前根本就没有实时中
断的概念。实现它简直就是一场豪赌。戴爷爷起初还不情愿,但经不住项目负责人 Bram
和Carel 的轮番“吹捧”:我们知道实时中断让您工作变得非常困难,但象您这样的牛人肯
定能做出来的说。结果戴爷爷被糖衣炮弹彻底击穿,接下了这个烫手山芋。两三年后,他
不仅搞出了实时中断,还围绕这个写出了自己的博士论文,顺利戴上博士帽。让戴爷爷真
正成名立万的还是在 X1 上开发的 Algo60,最早的高级语言之一。戴爷爷没日没夜地工作
了8 个月,就搞出了 Algo60,也因此获得了 1972 年的图灵奖。因为 Algo60,戴爷爷发
表了一篇石破天惊的文章:Recursive Programming,于是人们才知道,原来高级语言也可
以高效地实现递归,原来从此以后,所有程序员都不可避免地和戴爷爷发明的一个词 (应
该说是概念) 打交道:堆栈。而且 Algo60 还让戴爷爷深入地思考多道程序设计的问题,
最终发明了每个系统程序员都绕不开的概念:semaphore。当然,戴爷爷总是把他发明的概
念严格形式化,极具科学家本色的说。和这些成就想比,他提出的吃饭的哲学家问题,也
就没什么好说的了。说来好笑,当时的大学 (忘了哪所了) 还是觉得戴爷爷没有受过正统
的数学训练,也不是专门搞数值分析的,所以最后不太情愿地给了他一个教职。这种小挫
折并不能妨碍象戴爷爷这样的牛人创造历史。他一边教数值分析 (:-D),一边开始开发一
个新的操作系统,并培养计算机科学家。几年后,THE Multiprogramming System 横空出
世。THE 是第一个支持松散耦合,显式同步的进程并由此使得严格证明系统没有死锁变得
容易的操作系统。可惜戴爷爷任职的系不识货,还强行解散了他的研究小组 (1972 年戴爷
爷给他的系主任说他得了图灵奖,系主任的第一反应是你们搞计算机就喜欢乱发奖)。这让
戴爷爷相当郁闷,得了抑郁症。在极度郁闷之中,戴爷爷决定用写作来治疗自己的抑郁症
。于是经典就诞生乐:Notes on Structured Programming。戴爷爷从此被尊为结构化编程
的奠基人,而且他的抑郁症也被治好乐。EWD 太牛,结果他的故事也太多。先到这里吧。
1973 起,他的故事就在美国发生了。

心目中的编程高手 (9)

Anders Hejlsberg,微软.NET 的首席架构师,编程语言设计和实现的顶尖高手。他一手做
出了 Turbo Pascal,也是 Delphi, J++(尤其是 WFC),C#和.NET 的主要作者。这些作品
的名字足以为他立传。作为一个程序员,我在这样的大师面前实在无语。生子当如 Anders
的说。李维的《Borland 传奇》里已详细讲述了 Anders 的传奇故事,我就不用费舌了:
http://java.mblogger.cn/iexploiter/posts/1505.aspx。Artima 上有 Anders 谈 C#的
系列访谈。MSDN 上有一段 Anders 导游的录像。有兴趣可以去看看牛人的丰采。

使用超动感 HTML & JS 开发 WEB 应用!

使用超动感 HTML & JS 开发 WEB 应用!

杰出校友

在看 武汉大学杰出校友, 我知道的有:

随便翻翻 03

Popular Coding Convention on Github

涉及的语言有 JavaScript, Python, Java, Scala, Ruby, C#, PHP , 通过统计 Github 上的代码得到数据。

谈到 Tab / Space 的使用;逗号放哪儿;函数后空格问题等等。这些地方不影响代码执行,但是美观还是很重要对吧。规范还得遵守对吧?

大多数程序员都:

一些实例:

int function (int foo, int bar) {
    double indent_with_4_spaces;
}

while (true) {
    /* text within 80 chars */
}

import sys;
import numpy; # not `import sys, numpy`

div
p {
    color : red;
}

/* No extraneous whitespace */
spam(ham[1], {eggs: 2})
/* With extraneous whitespace */
spam( ham[ 1 ], { eggs: 2 } )

class MyFairLady ... /* CamelCase with a capital first letter */
val myValue = ...
def myMethod = ...
var myVariable ...

All Our Patent Are Belong To You | Tesla Motors

All Our Patent Are Belong To You | Tesla Motors

When I started out with my first company, Zip2, I thought patents were a good thing and worked hard to obtain them. After Zip2, when I realized that receiving a patent really just meant that you bought a lottery ticket to a lawsuit, I avoided them whenever possible.

The unfortunate reality is the opposite: electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn’t burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales.

Technology leadership is not defined by patents, which history has repeatedly shown to be small protection indeed against a determined competitor, but rather by the ability of a company to attract and motivate the world’s most talented engineers. We believe that applying the open source philosophy to our patents will strengthen rather than diminish Tesla’s position in this regard.

怎样读书比较快?

怎样读书比较快?

虽然在学校也读过一些英文书,但速度大概是每个学期 3 到 4 本,偶尔能看 5 本以上,就觉得相当有成就感了。现在要求一周内看完一本英文教材,还得给同事讲解,这是我从来没想过也没经历过的。… 这件事给我的印象太深刻了,平时大家总说“潜力”,但似乎都关注的是工作和学习的潜力,却没有想过阅读也是有潜力的

关于阅读,还有一本我印象深刻的书,叫做《怎样阅读一本书》。… 让我真正深刻意识到,阅读原来是讲方法的,比如什么书应该精读,什么书应该略读,一本书的哪些部分应该精读,哪些部分应该略读……

只有速度而没有质量,再快都没有意义

在学习技术知识时,讨论可能并不重要,因为书里的内容可以由客观标准来验证(对计算机来说更是如此)。但是对其它种类的知识,尤其是稍微艰深、复杂的知识,讨论是真正掌握的必经之路。

如果实在是找不到同好来讨论自己阅读的内容,还有一个加深理解的好办法,就是写读后感。读一本书或者非常容易,但是要写读后感,哪怕只是短短几百字的读后感,也会非常让人头疼。你会逼迫自己把读过的内容翻过来倒过去,仔细思考梳理出自己认可的逻辑,并按照一定的结构组织起来。

最后我想说的是,阅读速度不是孤立阅读一本书的速度,而是所有你的阅读量的加速度。因为之前的知识积累,在很大程度上影响着你阅读当前这本书的速度。… 只要你抱定开放的心态,必然可以不断提高自己的阅读鉴别力,通过除莠存良,提高自己的阅读效率

没有比较,难有收获

没有比较,难有收获

在没有老师指导的情况下如何练习作文?俞敏洪的回答是:如果自己练习,那么拿到题目先不要看范文,想想自己要怎么写,写出来,再对比范文,看看人家为什么写得好,有哪些地方可以学习

自学的时候,问题的答案往往是一开始就摆在那里的,于是学习就变成了“熟练掌握某种技能”的过程,但真正要弄掌握这些知识,或许应该认真想想:如果自己不知道答案,会怎么解决这个问题。 动过脑筋之后,再和现成答案对比,看看究竟有哪些需要学习和改进的地方。

我必须承认,在现成的答案面前,再花时间设想解法确实有点“耽误功夫”,而且自己的解法往往不能跟现成答案对比,有时候甚至差很多。这当然让人难为情,但是持续的比较、思考所带来的收获,远比“拿现成的来用”的收获要大。

以前,有则寓言我印象很深。一个人问智者:“怎样才能获得幸福?” 智者答:“做正确的事情。”那个人接着问:“怎样才能做正确的事情呢?”,智者答:“通过做错误的事情。”

纯属偶然——我和正则表达式的缘份

纯属偶然——我和正则表达式的缘份

我说以前怎么就看过他的博客……原来这样

所以在正式接手翻译《正则表达式》之前,我已经积累了十多万字的翻译经验,其中很多还是被批评后反复修改、讨论的结果。这些经验没有为我赢得什么实质的报酬,却是日后争取到翻译《精通正则表达式》机会的宝贵积累。

所以如今,每次听到大家把“正则表达式”和我联系到一起,我都感到非常惭愧。复习 GRE 提高了英语,热心前辈的建议和指引帮我提高了翻译水平,公司的“高压”让我有机会认识并迅速掌握正则表达式,项目经理的严格培养了我通过 Google 自学的能力,亚马逊的书评和电子版的存在让我选择《精通正则表达式》作为学习资料……只要其中任何一个条件发生变化,我可能都不会与正则表达式结缘。我真正能掌握的,只是掌握自己认为有价值的工具,练习自己认为有价值的技能,学习自己认为有价值的知识。

从《图灵的秘密》想到的

从《图灵的秘密》想到的

不过我最高兴的,还是通过阅读填补了自己知识结构中的若干鸿沟:原始的计算机都是专用于“计算”的,后来如何转变为能做任何事情的机器?大千世界的众多信息是怎样一步步进入计算机世界里,被表现和构建出来的?这些问题之前一直困扰着我,也找不到答案,看过这本书算是终于地摸到了答案,这本身就值得高兴;而且,填补断层有利于把所学的知识联接为统一的有机体,以后记忆和运用起来也更自如。

从目前计算机教育的教学大纲上看,知识点似乎都覆盖了,实际情况却相差万里。计算机科学本来是讲究“贯彻”的知识,许多看似高深或者无用的知识,其实正是问题的核心,它隐藏在表象之下,在语言和语法之后。

与此相反,了解这些背景也是构造知识内在联接,构建整门学科图谱的重要因素;有了丰富的内在联系,有完整的图谱,对整门学科的认知才会更深入,也更有可能从多种方面解决复杂问题。

我想,应该要有好的教师,能把知识讲得深入浅出——相机上的转接环就是 Bridge 模式的应用;要有广泛知道的好的教材——《现代操作系统》《操作系统概念》是学习操作系统的必读书;还要有类似《图灵的秘密》之类的书籍把学科背后的源流梳理清楚——原来图灵关心的是可计算序列而不是可计算数,这样计算机就不只会算“数”了。

《编码:隐匿在计算机软硬件背后的语言》《逻辑的引擎》《复杂》,《图灵的秘密》

关于程序员学英语的经验

关于程序员学英语的经验

总的来说,程序员可算是英语水平比较好的群体,因为在这个行业,英文资料是最全面、最及时,对英文资料的需求也最迫切的。

随便翻翻 04

5分钟让你 get 100 个 TED points!

5分钟让你get 100个 TED points!

  1. A lot of people aspire to be productive so they can become happier, but happiness has been shown to lead to productivity, not the other way around.
  2. You have three brain systems for love: lust, romantic love, and attachment. To develop more intimate relationships with your significant other, it’s important to invest in all three.
  3. Taking time off can make you a lot more productive, because time away from your work lets you explore, reflect, and come up with better ideas.

看剧学英语之《是,大臣》

看剧学英语之《是,大臣》

这剧很有年头了,从 1980 年到 1984 年,共播出三季,每季7集。续集《是,首相》,两季,每季 8 集,在 1986 至 1988 年播出。上下两部之外,还另有一部圣诞特别篇。总共有38集。也就是说,播完的时候,很多人还没有出生。

但不妨碍这部剧对英国的影响,当年,这部剧获奖无数,甚至被撒切尔夫人点名表扬,后世首相(包括现任卡梅隆)都对其交口称赞,说其揭露了英国政坛的种种弊端。

那为什么扯这个剧呢,原因只有一个,这里面的英语实在是。。。太美了。《是,大臣》的演员说话不仅仅字正腔圆,而且一开口就是典故文章,各种高级词汇,以至于网上的观众将其称为 GRE例句大全。也就是说,里面的句子,只要记住了,稍微改一改,就可以直接当GRE的范文

They never forget: The strange gift of perfect 记忆

They never forget: The strange gift of perfect记忆

【美好肉体】Crossfit女神 Jennifer Selter

【美好肉体】Crossfit女神Jennifer Selter

Crossfit

Crossfit

Jiro Dreams of Sushi | 寿司之神

Jiro Dreams of Sushi | 寿司之神中文配音版

我不是吃货,但看上去确实很棒。对待食物很虔诚,做得很用心,过程很艰辛。

四轴飞行器 | DIY小组 | 果壳

四轴飞行器 | DIY小组 | 果壳

quad rotor

quad rotor

学习是一种能力

学习是一种能力

There are good study references, leave for later reading, make note here

从我给别人讲这个题中,我所体会到的,是人们是 多么容易被暗示,去做毫无道理,其实戳穿后原理非常简单的事情。我想我也是一样容易被忽悠的。所以咱们都别太自信自己是正确的,哪怕看来是一目了然的事情。另外,就是多学习些知识还是有用的。虽然人生而蒙昧,但是多学一点,就少一点被忽悠的可能。

学习新技术的 10 个建议
  1. 克服惰性(Overcoming Inertia)
  2. 关注大牛(Watch the Pros)
  3. 建立知识网(Let the Information Flow Begin)
  4. 多听多看(Listen and Watch)
  5. 行动起来(Time for Action)
  6. 写博客(Blogging)
  7. 感受技术的脉搏(Feel the Pulse)
  8. 参加聚会以及会议(Meetups and Conferences)
  9. 拥抱GitHub
  10. 专注学习(Concentrated Learning)

But we should always keep in mind: from Internet, we can get the newest staff; but from good books, we can get things systemly, and in a short time.

Dont waste too much time, surfing (constant searching but no answer) the internet.

25 Celebrities Who Share An Uncanny Resemblance

25 Celebrities Who Share An Uncanny Resemblance

作为一个中国人,觉得这差距还是挺大的。或许是由于异族效应

Carlos Jackie

Carlos Jackie

芙蓉姐姐

芙蓉姐姐

芙蓉姐姐 2005 年与一名研究生小男友在一起,但分手多年后,芙蓉一直放不下这段感情。更得知其已经结婚,在看到他与新娘的婚纱照后,常常以泪洗面。恰巧在 2012 年 9 月 18 日,芙蓉向一位暗恋许久的男生表白,却被对方拒绝,更是情绪受挫。回想到自己到北京发展 10 年中,自己一个人打拼,转眼已经 35 岁,但依旧没有找到感情归宿,而且不能得到外界的认可。

Math List 01

Variable (mathematics)

In elementary mathematics, a variable is an alphabetic character representing a number which is either arbitrary or not fully specified or unknown. Making algebraic computations with variables as if they were explicit numbers allows one to solve a range of problems in a single computation. A typical example is the quadratic formula(二项式), which allows to solve every quadratic equation by simply substituting the numeric values of the coefficients of the given equation to the variables that represent them.

The concept of variable is also fundamental in calculus. Typically, a function y = f(x) involves two variables, its argument x and its value y. The term “variable” comes from the fact that, when the argument (also called the “variable of the function”) varies, then the value varies accordingly.

In more advanced mathematics, a variable is simply a symbol representing some data, which is commonly a number, but may also be any mathematical object such as a vector, a matrix or even a function. In this case, the original property of “variability” of a variable is not kept (except, sometimes, for informal explanations).

Similarly, in computer science, a variable is a name (commonly an alphabetic character or a word) representing some value represented in computer memory. In mathematical logic, a variable is either a symbol representing an unspecified term of the theory, or a basic object of the theory, which is manipulated without referring to its possible intuitive interpretation.

Here are other specific names for variables.

Other notational usages. Some of the most common usages: (大赞!!!)

a, b, c, and d (sometimes extended to e and f) often represent parameters or coefficients.
a0, a1, a2, ... play a similar role, when otherwise too many different letters would be needed.
ai or ui is often used to denote the i-th term of a sequence or the i-th coefficient of a series.
f and g (sometimes h) commonly denote functions.
i, j, and k (sometimes l or h) are often used to denote varying integers or indices in an indexed family.
l and w are often used to represent the length and width of a figure.
n usually denotes a fixed integer, such as a count of objects or the degree of an equation.
When two integers are needed, for example for the dimensions of a matrix, one uses commonly m and n.
p often denotes a prime numbers or a probability.
q often denotes a prime power or a quotient
r often denotes a remainder.
x, y and z usually denote the three Cartesian coordinates of a point in Euclidean geometry. By extension, they are used to name the corresponding axes.
z typically denotes a complex number, or, in statistics, a normal random variable.
α, β, γ, θ and φ commonly denote angle measures.
ε usually represents an arbitrarily small positive number.
ε and δ commonly denote two small positives.
λ is used for eigenvalues.
σ often denotes a sum, or, in statistics, the standard deviation.

Constant (mathematics)

Constant (mathematics)

Notable mathematical constants

Mathematical notation

Mathematical notation

Modern notation

The 18th and 19th centuries saw the creation and standardization of mathematical notation as used today. Euler was responsible for many of the notations in use today: the use of a, b, c for constants and x, y, z for unknowns, e for the base of the natural logarithm, sigma (Σ) for summation, i for the imaginary unit, and the functional notation f(x). He also popularized the use of π for Archimedes constant (due to William Jones’ proposal for the use of π in this way based on the earlier notation of William Oughtred). Many fields of mathematics bear the imprint of their creators for notation: the differential operator is due to Leibniz, the cardinal infinities to Georg Cantor (in addition to the lemniscate (∞) of John Wallis), the congruence symbol (≡) to Gauss, and so forth.

Computerized notation

TeX, LaTex, etc

注:尤其值得一提的是莱布尼茨(Leibniz)的一套符号。如微分表示 df/dx。

扩展阅读:

Bijection

bijection

bijection

Bijection

In mathematics, a bijection (or bijective function or one-to-one correspondence) is a function between the elements of two sets, where every element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and every element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In formal mathematical terms, a bijective function f: X → Y is a one to one and onto mapping of a set X to a set Y.

A bijection from the set X to the set Y has an inverse function from Y to X. If X and Y are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number (基数), a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets.

A bijective function from a set to itself is also called a permutation (置换).

Bijective functions are essential to many areas of mathematics including the definitions of isomorphism, homeomorphism, diffeomorphism, permutation group, and projective map.

Isomorphism

Isomorphism | 同态

英文的完全没有看懂。。。。中文的也够呛

抽象代数中,同态是两个代数结构(例如群、环、或者向量空间)之间的 保持结构不变 的映射。英文的同态 (homomorphism)来自希腊语: ὁμός (homos)表示“相同”而 μορφή (morphe)表示“形态”。注意相似的词根 ὅμοιος (homoios)表示“相似”出现在另一个数学概念同胚的英文(homeomorphism)中。

注:在 Peter D. Lax 的 线性代数 中,对 Isomorphism 定义大致是说,两个线性空间(Linear Space)如果在操作上不可区分(Indistinguishable by means of operations available in linear spaces),则称他们为 Isomorphism。这个定义就很容易理解。这也就是说,“同态”是相对操作而言的。(我们都是中国人,这个意义上我们“同”;但你是女生我是男生,这个意义上我们“不同”。)

Parallelepiped

parallel piped

parallel piped

Parallelepiped

In geometry, a parallelepiped is a three-dimensional figure formed by six parallelograms (the term rhomboid is also sometimes used with this meaning). By analogy, it relates to a parallelogram just as a cube relates to a square or as a cuboid to a rectangle. In Euclidean geometry, its definition encompasses all four concepts (i.e., parallelepiped, parallelogram, cube, and square). In this context of affine geometry, in which angles are not differentiated, its definition admits only parallelograms and parallelepipeds. Three equivalent definitions of parallelepiped are

The rectangular cuboid (six rectangular faces), cube (six square faces), and the rhombohedron (six rhombus faces) are all specific cases of parallelepiped.

“Parallelepiped” is now usually pronounced /ˌpærəlɛlɨˈpɪpɛd/, /ˌpærəlɛlɨˈpaɪpɛd/, or /-pɨd/; traditionally it was /ˌpærəlɛlˈɛpɨpɛd/ parr-ə-lel-ep-i-ped in accordance with its etymology in Greek παραλληλ-επίπεδον, a body “having parallel planes”.

Parallelepipeds are a subclass of the prismatoids (a polyhedron that has all of its vertices in two parallel planes).

Theorem

Theorem | 定理

定理

定理(英语:Theorem)是經過受邏輯限制的證明為真的陈述。一般來說,在數學中,只有重要或有趣的陳述才叫定理。證明定理是數學的中心活動。一个定理陈述一个给定类的所有(全称)元素一种不变的关系,这些元素可以是无穷多,它们在任何时刻都无区别地成立,而没有一个例外。(例如:某些a是x,某些a是y,就不能算是定理)。

猜想

是相信為真但未被證明的數學敘述,或者叫做命题,當它經過證明後便是定理。猜想是定理的來源,但並非唯一來源。一個從其他定理引伸出來的數學敘述可以不經過成為猜想的過程,成為定理。

如上所述,定理需要某些邏輯框架,繼而形成一套公理(公理系統)。同時,一個推理的過程,容許從公理中引出新定理和其他之前發現的定理。

在命題邏輯,所有已證明的敘述都稱為定理。

扩展阅读:

Probability mass function

Probability mass function

通常表示为 pmf or p.m.f.

与 pdf (probability density function)不同的是,pmf 讨论的是离散量。参见下一条。

Probability distribution

Probability distribution

对比:

Lemniscate

Lemniscate

八字形

lemniscate

lemniscate

Galois theory

Galois theory

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra, Galois theory, named after Évariste Galois, provides a connection between field theory and group theory. Using Galois theory, certain problems in field theory can be reduced to group theory, which is in some sense simpler and better understood.

Originally, Galois used permutation groups to describe how the various roots of a given polynomial equation are related to each other. The modern approach to Galois theory, developed by Richard Dedekind, Leopold Kronecker and Emil Artin, among others, involves studying automorphisms of field extensions.

Further abstraction of Galois theory is achieved by the theory of Galois connections.

举例:

  1. 对 Quadric Equation the Galois group of the polynomial x2 − 4x + 1 consists of two permutations: the identity permutation which leaves A and B untouched, and the transposition permutation which exchanges A and B. It is a cyclic group of order two, and therefore isomorphic to Z/2Z.
  2. Consider the polynomial: the Galois group is isomorphic to the Klein four-group.

Congruent

Congruent

举例 1:全等三角形(They are congruent)
举例 2:在线性代数中

一个形如 (x1, x2, ..., xn) 的向量 v1,一个形如 (0, y2, ..., yn) v2,如果 v1 的 x1 恰好为 0,那么他们 Congruent。

Quotient Space

Quotient Space

问题引入

If two vectors v1, v2 in Linear Space X are congruent modulo Y (a linear subspace of X), then v1, v2 and all other vectors congruent with them form a linear space, denoted by X/Y or X mod Y. (我写的,没有语法错误把?)

再看一下,其实 X/Y 表示的是线性空间 X 里面的向量投影到线性空间 Y 后相等(或者说 Congruent)。比如二维平面 x-y,用 (x,y)表示。(x,0)表示所有 y 为 0 的向量集合,显然也是一个线性空间。则 (x,y)/(x,0)这个 Quotient Space 里的(2, 2) 和(2, 8)一样(因为投影把 y 方向的信息忽略了)。

In linear algebra, the quotient of a vector space V by a subspace N is a vector space obtained by “collapsing” N to zero. The space obtained is called a quotient space and is denoted V/N (read V mod N or V by N).

mod: modulo

两个例子

Let X = R2 be the standard Cartesian plane, and let Y be a line through the origin in X. Then the quotient space X/Y can be identified with the space of all lines in X which are parallel to Y. That is to say that, the elements of the set X/Y are lines in X parallel to Y. This gives one way in which to visualize quotient spaces geometrically. (X 二维平面,Y 面上的一条直线(dim Y 还是 2),然后 X/Y 是所有的平行于那条直线的向量)

Another example is the quotient of Rn by the subspace spanned by the first m standard basis vectors. The space Rn consists of all n-tuples of real numbers (x1,…,xn). The subspace, identified with Rm, consists of all n-tuples such that the last n-m entries are zero: (x1,…,xm,0,0,…,0). Two vectors of Rn are in the same congruence class modulo the subspace if and only if they are identical in the last n−m coordinates. The quotient space Rn/ Rm is isomorphic to Rn−m in an obvious manner.

V 是 U,W 的 Direct Sum,然后有

Prime – Symbol

Prime – Symbol

The prime symbol ( ′ ), double prime symbol ( ″ ), and triple prime symbol ( ‴ ), etc., are used to designate several different units and for various other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music. The prime symbol should not be confused with the apostrophe (就是英文单引号 '), single quotation mark, acute accent, or grave accent; the double prime symbol should not be confused with the double quotation mark("), the ditto mark, or the letter double apostrophe. The prime symbol is very similar to the Hebrew geresh, but in modern fonts the geresh is designed to be aligned with the Hebrew letters and the prime symbol not, so they should not be interchanged.

比如求导,f′ 中文读作 “艾弗撇”,英文对应为 “ef prime”(我觉得 f’ 也挺好的。。。f apostrophe),如果用 Leibniz 的表示法 df/dx,读作 “dee ef over dee eks”。

P.S. 曾经弄键盘布局的时候差不多把各种标点符号的英文都摸了个清(所以才有 Neo-Extended Programmer Dvorak

The character ∂(\(\partial\)) (html element: &#8706; or &part;, unicode: U+2202) or is a stylized d mainly used as a mathematical symbol to denote a partial derivative such as \(\frac{\partial z}{\partial x}\) (read as “the partial derivative of z with respect to x”). The symbol was originally introduced by Legendre in 1786, but only gained popularity when it was used by Jacobi in 1841.

∂ is also used to denote the following:

The symbol may be referred to as “del”, “dee”, “partial dee”, or “partial”. (读法)

Annihilator

Annihilator

annihilator

annihilator

维基百科:Annihilator

(我去。。。上次弄的这个图片把我自己吓一跳。。。)这是一个互相(Mutual)的说法。x,y annihilate 如果它们的 Scalar Product(x,y)= 0。

Euclidean Space

Euclidean Space

极度规范的一个线性空间,其 Base Vectors 规范正交(Orthogonal Orthonormal)。还引入了 Euclidean Structure 这种运算规则。

Euclidean Structure 在线性空间的基础上定义了向量的 Inner Product(内积),也叫 Dot Product,Scalar Product。引入了 Norm 的概念,这样就能定义一个向量的长度(Norm,模),这个空间也就有个测度(Metric)。

Words List 07 08 09

超实数

超实数

超实数系统是为了严格处理无穷量(无穷大量和无穷小量)而提出的。自从微积分的发明以来,数学家、科学家和工程师等(包括牛顿和莱布尼兹在内)就一直广泛地用无穷小量等概念。超实数集,或称为非标准实数集,记为 * ℝ,是实数集 ℝ 的一个扩张;

See also

Manifold

Manifold

Manifold

Manifold

中文居然翻译成 “流形”。。。微积分用 Manifold 说就是(一个公式概括微积分):

Stokes’ Theorem

Stokes’ Theorem

\[\int_{\partial \Omega}\omega=\int_\Omega \mathrm {d}\omega.\]

这里的 \(\Omega\)\(\partial\Omega\) 都是 Manifold,后者是前者的边界。

See also

UTF-8

UTF-8 without BOM

The Internationally defined Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Universal Character Set (UCS) know as UTF-8 (Universal Character Set + Transformation Format—8-bit) is a variable-width encoding that can represent every character in the Unicode character set. It was designed for backward compatibility(后向兼容) with ASCII and to avoid the complications( 并发症) of endianness(字节顺序) and byte order marks in UTF-16 and UTF-32.

UTF-8 has become the dominant character encoding for the World Wide Web, accounting for more than half of all Web pages. The Internet Mail Consortium (IMC) recommends that all e-mail programs be able to display and create mail using UTF-8. The W3C recommends UTF-8 as default encoding in their main standards (XML and HTML).

The official IANA code for the UTF-8 character encoding is UTF-8.

The UTF-8 BOM is a sequence of bytes (EF BB BF) that allows the reader to identify the file as an UTF-8 file.

Normally, the BOM is used to signal the endianness of the encoding, but since endianness is irrelevant to UTF-8, the BOM is unnecessary.

According to the Unicode standard, the BOM for UTF-8 files is not recommended:

P.S. GitHub 上新建的文档都是 UTF-8 without BOM 编码; Windows 系统上用记事本新建的文档都是 ANSI 编码(微软自家用)。建议使用 UTF-8 without BOM

Notes

Refs

See also

Mutatis Mutandis

Mutatis Mutandis

Mutatis mutandis is a Latin phrase meaning “changing [only] those things which need to be changed” or more simply “[only] the necessary changes having been made”.

The phrase carries the connotation that the reader should pay attention to differences between the current statement and a previous one, although they are analogous. (For example, in writing about appropriate forms of dress in biblical times, the New Testament generally refers to females in considering immodesty and extravagance in dress; but, analogously, the same can be applied, mutatis mutandis [“changing only those things which need to be changed,” namely, the sex of the person referred to], to men also.) It can be understood as meaning “acknowledging the difference between the two” or (more succinctly(简便地)) as “acknowledging differences”. This term is used frequently in economics, philosophy, logic, and law, to parameterize a statement with a new term, or note the application of an implied, mutually understood set of changes. The phrase is also used in the study of counter-factuals, wherein the requisite change in the factual basis of the past is made and the resulting causalities are followed.

用中文说大意是:接下来有个例子差不多(但还是差一点,要注意哦)

(这个“哦”显得有点娘炮。。。但是 That’s it)

see also

M3U

M3U

M3U is a computer file format that contains multimedia playlists. It originally was designed for audio files, such as MP3, but various software now uses it to play video file lists. M3U’s can also point a media player to an online streaming audio source. Numerous media players and software applications supports the M3U file format.

这个真牛逼。。。用这个可以管理自己的视频文档。不管存在哪,维护一个文档列表,要看的时候把它(你整理的视频目录) copy 出一个 M3U 文件就行。比各种不同视频播放器的 Playlist 强(兼容性!!!)

我在 Gist 上的 M3U 笔记:M3U 记录

外,这个 M3U 文档,另存下来,用播放器打开,就能看:

其实大家以后分享视屏,可以分享一个 M3U 文件,而不是优酷链接(还不用看广告了)

Phonetics

Phonetics 语音学

AMS - American Mathematical Society

AMS - American Mathematical Society

The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy(辩护) and other programs.

The society is one of the four parts of the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics (JPBM) and a member of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences (CBMS).

The AMS was an early advocate of the typesetting program TeX, requiring that contributions be written in it and producing its own packages AMS-TeX and AMS-LaTeX. TeX and LaTeX are now ubiquitous(无所不在的) in mathematical publishing.

Hash Mark

Hash Mark

Hash marks are short lines, running perpendicular to sidelines or sideboards, used to mark locations, primarily in sports.

Hash Mark

Hash Mark

Number Sign

Number Sign

Number sign is a name for the symbol #, which is used for a variety of purposes, including (mainly in the United States) the designation(指示) of a number (for example, “#1” stands for “number one”). In recent years, it has been used for “hashtagging” on social media websites.

The term number sign is most commonly used when the symbol is used before a number. In the United States, it is sometimes known as the pound sign, and has been traditionally used in the food industry as an abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois(常衡). Outside of North America the symbol is called hash and the corresponding telephone key is called the “hash key” (and the term “pound sign” usually describes the British currency symbol “£”). The symbol is defined in Unicode as U+0023 # number sign (HTML: # as in ASCII).

The symbol may be confused with the musical symbol called sharp (♯). In both symbols, there are two pairs of parallel lines. The main difference is that the number sign has two horizontal strokes while the sharp sign has two slanted parallel lines which must rise from left to right, in order to avoid being obscured by the horizontal musical staff lines.

Exclamation Mark

Exclamation Mark

The exclamation mark or exclamation point is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), and often marks the end of a sentence. Example: “Watch out!” Similarly, a bare exclamation mark (with nothing before or after) is often used in warning signs.

The mark can also be used at the beginning of a word instead of at the end. For example, several computer languages use “!” for logical negation; e.g. “!A” means “the logical negation of A”, also called “not A”. There are many other specialized uses of this mark, such as in mathematics where it denotes the factorial operation.

In the Geek Code version 3, “!” is used before a letter to denote that the geek refuses to participate in the topic at hand. In some cases, it has an alternate meaning, such as G! denoting a geek of no qualifications, !d denoting not wearing any clothes, P! denoting not being allowed to use Perl, and so on. They all share some negative connotations however.

Hashtag

Hashtag

A hashtag is a word or an unspaced phrase prefixed with the number sign (“#”). It is a form of metadata tag. Words in messages on microblogging and social networking services such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, VK or Instagram may be tagged by putting “#” before them, either as they appear in a sentence, (e.g., “New artists announced for #SXSW2014 Music Festival”) or appended to it. The term “hashtag” can also refer to the hash symbol itself when used within the context of reciting a hashtag.

Hashtags make it possible to group such messages, since one can search for the hashtag and get the set of messages that contain it. A hashtag is only connected to a specific medium and can therefore not be linked and connected to pictures or messages from different platforms.

Because of its widespread use, the word was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in June 2014.

Notes

See also

Render unto Caeser…

“Render unto Caesar” is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic (对观福音书的)gospels(福音书), which reads in full, “Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s” (Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ τῷ Θεῷ)

This phrase has become a widely quoted summary of the relationship between Christianity and secular(世俗) authority. The original message, coming in response to a question of whether it was lawful for Jews to pay taxes to Caesar, gives rise to multiple possible interpretations about the circumstances under which it is desirable for the Christian to submit to earthly authority.

CSL

CSL

YAML

YAML

CDN

CDN

Chi Rho

Chi Rho

Chi Rho

Moment

峰度

Kurtosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kurtosis Excess Kurtosis

A distribution with negative excess kurtosis is called platykurtic, or platykurtotic. “Platy-” means “broad”. In terms of shape, a platykurtic distribution has a lower, wider peak around the mean and thinner tails.

MISC

梭哈是一种扑克的玩法, 当然看港剧的人都知道 它还有一个意思是把所有的东西全部压上去,也就是英文里的 show hand, 它的意思就是摊牌,亮出手里所有的东东。

Quotation List

请在我们脏的时候爱我们

迪米特里·迪米特里耶维奇·肖斯塔科维奇(Дмитрий·Дмитриевич·Шостакович,1906年9月25日-1975年8月9日),原苏联时期最重要的 作曲家 之一,20世纪世界著名作曲家之一;生于圣彼得堡, 1919—1925年在彼得堡音乐学院学习钢琴与作曲;1923、1925年先后毕业,以第1交响曲而成名; 1927年在肖邦钢琴比赛中获奖;卫国战争中所创作的第7交响曲享誉世界;1957、1962年先后因第10、13交响曲引起争论; 1960年加入苏联共产党;其主要作品还有小提琴协奏曲、钢琴协奏曲、大提琴协奏曲以及大量室内乐等;1975年在莫斯科去世。

对一切冷酷和独裁,我们的回答是生活

加夫列尔·加西亚·马尔克斯(Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez,1927年3月6日-2014年4月17日),是 哥伦比亚 作家、记者和社会活动家,拉丁美洲魔幻现实主义文学 的代表人物,20世纪最有影响力的作家之一, 1982年诺贝尔文学奖得主。作为一个天才的、赢得广泛赞誉的小说家,加西亚·马尔克斯将现实主义与幻想结合起来,创造了一部风云变幻的哥伦比亚和整个南美大陆的神话般的历史。代表作有《百年孤独》(1967年)《霍乱时期的爱情》(1985年)。据悉,马尔克斯已罹患老年痴呆症,今后可能无法再从事创作活动。

2014年4月17日在墨西哥家中去世,享年87岁。

Math List 02

Orthogonal Matrix

Orthogonal Matrix

In linear algebra, an orthogonal matrix is a square matrix with real entries whose columns and rows are orthogonal unit vectors (i.e., orthonormal vectors), i.e.

\[Q^\mathrm{T} Q = Q Q^\mathrm{T} = I,\]

where I is the identity matrix.

This leads to the equivalent characterization: a matrix Q is orthogonal if its transpose is equal to its inverse:

\[Q^\mathrm{T}=Q^{-1}, \,\]

An orthogonal matrix Q is necessarily invertible (with inverse \(Q^{-1} = Q^T\)), unitary (\(Q^{-1} = Q^*\)) and therefore normal (\(Q^*Q = QQ^*\)) in the reals. The determinant of any orthogonal matrix is either +1 or −1. As a linear transformation, an orthogonal matrix preserves the dot product of vectors, and therefore acts as an isometry of Euclidean space, such as a rotation or reflection. In other words, it is a unitary transformation.

The set of n × n orthogonal matrices forms a group O(n), known as the orthogonal group. The subgroup SO(n) consisting of orthogonal matrices with determinant +1 is called the special orthogonal group, and each of its elements is a special orthogonal matrix. As a linear transformation, every special orthogonal matrix acts as a rotation.

The complex analogue of an orthogonal matrix is a unitary matrix.

Unitary

unitary-matrix

Conjugate Transpose

Conjugate Transpose

Trace Diagram

Trace Diagram

吓尿了。。。

Matrix Decomposition

Matrix Decomposition

Incident Matrix

Incident Matrix

Vorticity

Vorticity

Fractal

Fractal

fractal

fractal

fractal

fractal

e

e

Cyclotomic Polynomial

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclotomic_polynomial

Euler Phi Function

Euler Phi Function

随便翻翻 05

挑战无处不在

挑战无处不在 | 酷 壳 - CoolShell.cn

一些名词

一些命名规范
Block

GitLab 的故事 - Teahour.fm

GitLab 的故事 - Teahour.fm

看这个:程序员播客(podcast)推荐 | 简书 就选了这个看。

怎样翻译更地道

怎样翻译更地道

如何战胜他人的偏见?

如何战胜他人的偏见?

miss treated

miss treated

意志力是什么?

意志力是什么?

那,什么是意志力?

豆瓣阅读

社会竞争压力太大,物价上涨过快。他终于是没能在你最美的年纪里攒够娶你的钱,他也不小了,二十七八岁了。家里说给他看了一个还不错的姑娘,让他回家看看。你知道了,松了一口气,也答应了去见那个妈妈给介绍的年轻有为有车有房的男人。最终他回了老家娶了别人,你也嫁给了一个你理想中的男人。有车有房,不用你吃苦,你能安心奋斗了。

EDC(Everyday Carry)
  1. 简单普及一些危险因素信息的对应标记,都是英文缩写:
    • 有毒有害物质:GAS。
    • 易燃易爆物质:EXPL。
    • 放射性物质:RAD。
    • 化学物质:CHEM。
    • 漏电:ELEC。
    • 燃料泄露:FUEL。
    • 可能垮塌:COLL。
  2. 如果标志有危险信息,还可进的话,就说明危险因素已经被排除了。

关键是人,而不是工具。

互联网上百分之一的人生产内容,百分之十的人参与互动,百分之八十的人单纯阅读。为自己不断地寻找理由,努力做一个贡献内容的人。有句话说得好: 每个技术团队都有一个年久失修的博客,这能说明什么问题呢?

不一定要那么大众,那么出彩,那种形式,才算作品。不同的人,不同的阶段对作品都有着不同的定义。作品也有拿的出手的和拿不出手的之分。但如果你对「作品」完全没有了创作欲望或决心又碰巧是个好学的人,那么我说的求知瘾者可能就是你。

感觉这群人永远站在自我世界的中心,他们指着天上的劫云一副仙风道骨随时羽化的模样,大喊:「我要打十个!」好在这个社会的秩序还是靠实力评判。真正行动的人,他们往往什么都不说。

松塔环顾四周。仔细想想,男朋友只是不见了,不能说明这锅米饭就是他变的。也许他煮了米饭,就变成了一枚戒指呢?他这么爱我,一定不会变成一锅米饭给我添麻烦的。肯定是变成了我最喜欢的戒指!

想到这里,松塔终于缓了一口气。还好,米饭没有冷,松塔给自己做了个西兰花炒带鱼,配着米饭吃掉了。然后买了时尚潮爆 Tiffany 来自星星的你同款戒指(江浙沪包邮),从此天天把它带在身边。无论是上班、吃火锅、跟客户开会、拍桌子骂他们傻逼、一个人环游世界到处开房从不带套。

直到戒指丢了。

试了一段时间觉得效果很不错,尤其是上班时精神状况明显好转,几乎不太打瞌睡,身材也比较能控制住。后来 Google 一下 「站着工作」 发现原来 Google、Facebook、AOL 等公司也有一些人开始会站着工作,有许多研究报告也指出站着工作比坐着好,无论是在卡路里的消耗或是工作时的精神状态,都有不少助益。其实站着工作除了有助于身材和精神之外,我发现对于「移动」这件事情也很有帮助;坐着的时候想要去倒杯水、上个厕所,有时候还真有点懒得起身移动,但如果是站着就可以很轻易地一个转身就去做那些事.

最后附记一下,昨天,我问三个小女孩,这么多兴趣班,你们都喜欢吗?学了九门课的女孩 A 抢着说:我都喜欢,但我最喜欢钢琴、舞蹈和英语。学了四门课的女孩 B 说:我喜欢钢琴和舞蹈,还有画画。学了一门课的毛丫同学说:我都不喜欢,我只喜欢玩。我陪你好好玩。 没有人能拥有完美的人生,但每个人都值得一个快乐的童年。

Men List: 02(音乐人特别版 01)

Izumi Sakai 坂井泉水

Izumi Sakai 坂井泉水

Izumi Sakai

Izumi Sakai (坂井泉水 Sakai Izumi), (February 6, 1967 – May 27, 2007), was a Japanese Pop singer, song writer, and member of the group Zard.

卡拉OK皇后

曾在1989年被评为东映卡拉 OK 皇后,日本 AIR SYSTEM 活动女郎, 90年日清赛皇后。ZARD 几乎所有的歌都由坂井泉水作词,此外她也曾为 Field Of View、DEEN 等团体作词,看来坂井泉水确实是多才多艺。

女子摇滚乐队第一人

坂井泉水担当乐队的作词和主唱,可以说她开创了摇滚乐队以女子为主唱的形式, ZARD 不仅在日本本土,在亚洲也堪称女子乐团的传奇组合。虽然坂井泉水的歌曲以情歌为主,但一般都节奏明快,充满活力。她写的歌词大多是鼓励人们去勇敢坚强地面对爱情和生活中的挫折,在当代得到歌迷的巨大反响。

歌之精神

ZARD 的歌大多偏向轻快、激昂的曲风,且多为连续剧或动画的主题歌,像《SLAM DUNK》的 ED《My Friend》、《真·中华一番》(中华小当家/中华一番)的 OP,《无法呼吸》,被称作动漫歌曲界不朽的名作。 ZARD 也曾为《灌篮高手》、《名侦探柯南》等动漫/电视剧等演唱过主题曲。

Maki Ohguro 大黑摩季

Maki Ohguro 大黑摩季

大黑摩季(1969年12月31日-)是一位著名的日本创作型女歌手,所属唱片公司为 EMI Music Japan Inc. 与 Virgin Music,演唱曲风以摇滚为主。代表作有《DA·KA·RA》、《我只凝望你》、《LA·LA·LA》等。

Maki Ohguro (大黒 摩季 Ōguro Maki?) is a Japanese pop singer and songwriter from Sapporo, Hokkaido.

In 1989, she passed the ‘3rd BAD’ audition. Her famous songs are “DA・KA・RA”, “Chotto”, and so on… Her second single “DA・ka・RA” sold 1.1 million copies and won the ‘Japan Record Grand Prix’ newcomer award of the year. Because of her rare public appearances, she was originally known as a phantom singer, like Izumi Sakai of Zard. “Anata Dake Mitsumeteru”, the ending theme for Slam Dunk(灌篮高手啊亲), was the number 2 song for the month of January 1994, and is certified as a Million record, selling 1,087,160 copies.

玛莉特 Marit Larsen

玛莉特 Marit Larsen

Marit Larsen

Marit Larsen

Marit Larsen,原 M2M 女子组合的成员。在 2002 年 4 月解散后,Marion 在 2005 年出了其首张专辑 Here I Am, Marit 则在 2006 年出了其首张单飞专辑 Under The Surface,08 年推出了第二张专辑 The Chase。

Marit Elisabeth Larsen (born 1 July 1983) is a Norwegian singer and songwriter. She began playing violins at age of 5, and played it until the age of 8. She gained international fame during her teenage years as a member of the pop duo(二重唱) M2M with childhood friend Marion Raven. More recently she has pursued her own music career releasing her solo debut album, Under the Surface, in 2006. Her second album, The Chase, was released in Norway in October 2008. The third album, titled Spark was released in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland on 18 November 2011 and Germany, Austria, Switzerland on 16 December 2011.

If A Song Could Get Me You,太喜欢这首歌了~

M2M

M2M

M2M was a pop music duo formed by two Norwegians, Marion Elise Raven and Marit Elisabeth Larsen. They released three albums under Warner Music Norway: Shades of Purple, The Big Room, and The Day You Went Away: The Best of M2M, a greatest hits album released by their record label after they disbanded.

Raven and Larsen come from Lørenskog in the district east of Oslo. They had known each other since the age of five. Discovered by the Norwegian music producers Kenneth M. Lewis and Kai Robøle, the girls were signed to Atlantic Records in 1998. The name “M2M” was chosen from a contest held for fans to give a name to the band, having been previously known as Marion & Marit.

The Eagles

The Eagles

The Eagles are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1971 by Glenn Frey, Don Henley, Bernie Leadon and Randy Meisner. With five number-one singles, six Grammy Awards, five American Music Awards and six number one albums, the Eagles were one of the most successful musical acts of the 1970s. At the end of the 20th century, two of their albums, Their Greatest Hits (1971–1975) and Hotel California, were ranked among the 20 best-selling albums in the U.S. according to the Recording Industry Association of America. Hotel California is ranked 37th in Rolling Stone’s list of “The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time” and the band was ranked number 75 on the magazine’s 2004 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.

They are one of the world’s best-selling bands of all time, having sold over 150 million records[7]—100 million in the U.S. alone—including 42 million copies of Their Greatest Hits (1971–1975) and 32 million copies of Hotel California. They are the fifth-highest-selling music act and highest-selling American band in US history. No American band sold more records than the Eagles during the 1970s.

The Eagles released their self-titled debut album in 1972, which spawned three top 40 singles: “Take It Easy”, “Witchy Woman” and “Peaceful Easy Feeling”. Their next album, Desperado (1973), was less successful than the first, reaching only number 41 on the charts; neither of its singles reached the top 40. However, the album contained two of the band’s most popular tracks: “Desperado” and “Tequila Sunrise”. They released On the Border in 1974, adding guitarist Don Felder midway through the recording of the album. The album generated two top 40 singles: “Already Gone” and their first number one, “Best of My Love”.

It was not until 1975’s One of These Nights that the Eagles became arguably America’s biggest band. The album included three top 10 singles: “One of These Nights”, “Lyin’ Eyes” and “Take It to the Limit”, the first hitting the top of the charts. They continued that success and hit their commercial peak in late 1976 with the release of Hotel California, which would go on to sell over 16 million copies in the U.S. alone and over 32 million copies worldwide. The album yielded two number-one singles, “New Kid in Town” and “Hotel California”. They released their last studio album for nearly 28 years in 1979 with The Long Run, which spawned three top 10 singles: “Heartache Tonight”, “The Long Run” and “I Can’t Tell You Why”, the lead single being another chart-topping hit.

The Eagles disbanded in July 1980 but reunited in 1994 for the album Hell Freezes Over, a mix of live and new studio tracks. They have toured intermittently since then and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2007, the Eagles released Long Road Out of Eden, their first full studio album in 28 years and their sixth number one album. The next year they launched the Long Road Out of Eden Tour in support of the album. In 2013, they began the extended History of the Eagles Tour in conjunction with the band’s documentary release, History of the Eagles.

R.Kelly

R.Kelly

Leonard Cohen

Leonard Cohen

Leonard Cohen

Leonard Cohen

Leonard Norman Cohen, CC GOQ (born 21 September 1934) is a Canadian singer-songwriter, musician, poet, and novelist. His work has explored religion, politics, isolation, sexuality, and personal relationships. Cohen has been inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and both the Canadian Music Hall of Fame and the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame. He is also a Companion of the Order of Canada, the nation’s highest civilian honour. In 2011, Cohen received a Prince of Asturias Award for literature.

The critic Bruce Eder assessed Cohen’s overall career in popular music by asserting that “[he is] one of the most fascinating and enigmatic … singer/songwriters of the late ’60s … [and] has retained an audience across four decades of music-making … Second only to Bob Dylan (and perhaps Paul Simon) [in terms of influence], he commands the attention of critics and younger musicians more firmly than any other musical figure from the 1960s who is still working at the outset of the 21st century.”

The Academy of American Poets has commented more broadly on Cohen’s overall career in the arts, including his work as a poet, novelist, and songwriter, stating that “[Cohen’s] successful blending of poetry, fiction, and music is made most clear in Stranger Music: Selected Poems and Songs, published in 1993, which gathered more than 200 of Cohen’s poems … several novel excerpts, and almost 60 song lyrics … While it may seem to some that Leonard Cohen departed from the literary in pursuit of the musical, his fans continue to embrace him as a Renaissance man who straddles the elusive artistic borderlines.”

Cohen will release his 13th studio album, Popular Problems, on Columbia Records a day after his 80th birthday on September 22, 2014.

Leehom Wang 王力宏

Leehom Wang 王力宏

Queen

Queen

Adam Lambert

Adam Lambert

话说维基上 Adam 好丑。。。说好的妖艳呢。。。

Jason Chen 陈以桐

Jason Chen 陈以桐

Katy Perry

Katy Perry

大爱 Katy Perry 的 The One That Got Away,这里是 Acoustic 版

Men List: 04 (程序员特别版 02)

List of programmers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman (理查德·斯托曼)

Richard Stallman

Richard Stallman

keywords: Free Software, GPL, Emacs, GCC, GNU

Julian Assange

Julian Assange (朱利安·阿桑奇)

keywords: WikiLeaks

Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvalds (林纳斯·托瓦兹)

Linus Torvalds (林纳斯·托瓦兹)

keywords: Linux, Git

Bill Gates

Bill Gates (比尔·盖茨)

Bill Gates (比尔·盖茨)

keywords: Windows, BASIC

Paul Allen

Paul Allen (保罗·艾伦)

Paul Allen (保罗·艾伦)

Kevin Mitnick

Kevin Mitnick (凯文·米特尼克)

Kevin Mitnick (凯文·米特尼克)

Tsutomu Shimomura

Tsutomu Shimomura

Tsutomu Shimomura

Steve Yegge

Steve Yegge

Steve Yegge

Brian Kernighan

Brian Kernighan

Alan Kay

alan-kay

Steve Wozniak

Steve Wozniak

Men List: 05 (数学家特别版 01)

Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler

David Hilbert

David Hilbert

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (/ˈkɜrt ɡɜrdəl/; German: [ˈkʊʁt ˈɡøːdəl] ; April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher. Considered with Aristotle and Gottlob Frege to be one of the most significant logicians in history, Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20th century, a time when others such as Bertrand Russell, A. N. Whitehead, and David Hilbert were pioneering the use of logic and set theory to understand the foundations of mathematics.

M. C. Escher

M. C. Escher

M. C. Escher

William Sealy Gosset

William Sealy Gosset

笔名叫 Student。。。统计学大神中的大神。

Ronald Fisher

Ronald Fisher

Karl Pearson

Karl Pearson

Egon Pearson

Egon Pearson

John Wishart

John Wishart

Jerzy Neyman

Jerzy Neyman

Abraham Wald

Abraham Wald

Harald Cramer

Harald Cramer

柯尔莫哥洛夫(Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov)

他 5、6 岁时就归纳出了 l=1^2,1+3=2^2,1+3+5=3^2,1+3+5+7=4^2.… 这一数学规律。

柯尔莫哥洛夫(Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov)

柯尔莫哥洛夫(Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov)

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (Russian: Андрей Николаевич Колмогоров; (IPA: [ɐn'drʲej nʲɪkɐˈlajɪvʲɪt͡ɕ kəlmə'ɡorəf]), 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic(直觉) logic, turbulence(湍流), classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

柯氏公理系统(概率论)

See also

Men List: 06 (诺贝尔物理学奖 01)

Walter Cronkite

Walter Cronkite

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel

Don Juan

Don Juan

As An Emacs Newbie

Emacs 101

What is Emacs

Some Sites/Tutorials

Emacs Notes

Edit Tables

+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|My          |         |   First |Emacs   |Table   |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|Tab         |         |      to |move    |forward |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|   S-Tab    |this row |   to    |  move  |backward|
|            |   is    |         |        |        |
|            |justified|         |        |        |
|            |to center|         |        |        |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|this col is |         | this col|        |the     |
|widened     |         |       is|        |newly   |
|            |         |justified|        |inserted|
|            |         | to right|        |row     |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|            |new COL  |  now to |        |now to  |
|            |here!    |  insert |        |insert  |
|            |         |     col |        |row     |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+
|            |         |         |        |        |
+------------+---------+---------+--------+--------+

Org-mode(Org-mode,让生活更美好)

Keyboard Macros

start-kbd-macro                   *start-kbd-macro*
end-kbd-macro       ====>         *end-kbd-macro*
call-last-kbd-macro               *call-last-kbd-macro*

你需要先把光标移到最左上角,开始录制宏,输入*,按End,输入*,按 Down(方向键),Home,结束录制宏。再运行两次宏,就可以了 (或者 C-u 2 C-x e2)。

File Header

;; -*- mode: Lisp; fill-column: 75; comment-column: 50; -*-
Misc (以后慢慢把 misc 里的移出来)
toggle-case-fold-search
read-only-mode
Emacs Relative

I use this to edit almost all of my JianShu Posts now.

refs and see also

Emacs Chat

Jamie Zawinski

Lisp hacker, early Netscape developer, and nightclub owner Jamie Zawinski, a.k.a. jwz, is a member of the select group of hackers who are as well known by their three-letter initials as by their full names.

“Ptthh, wrong!” and he’d walk away. So that was kind of getting thrown in the deep end. It was like the Zen approach – the master hit me with a stick, now I must meditate.

“Oh my god; now I’m trying to debug GDB, which I’ve never looked at before.”

We spent a long time talking about features. Well, not a long time, but it seemed like a long time because we were living a week every day. We stripped features, definitely. We had a whiteboard; we scribbled ideas; we crossed them out. This was a group of like six or seven people. I don’t remember exactly the number. A bunch of smart, egotistical people sitting in a room yelling at each other for a week or so.

In some ways, yeah. Programming is obviously much more rigid. But as far as the overall ability to express a thought, they’re very similar. Not rambling, having an idea in your head of what you’re trying to say, and then being concise about it. I think that kind of thinking is the overlap between programming and writing prose.

When I’m just writing the first version of the program, I tend to put everything in one file. And then I start seeing structure in that file. Like there’s this block of things that are pretty similar. That’s a thousand lines now, so why don’t I move that into another file. And the API sort of builds up organically that way. The design process is definitely an ongoing thing; you never know what the design is until the program is done. So I prefer to get my feet wet as early as possible; get something on the screen so I can look at it sideways.

We had to ship the thing even if it wasn’t perfect. We can ship it later and it would be higher quality but someone else might have eaten our lunch by then.

I always wish people would comment more, though the thing that makes me cringe is when the comment is the name of the function rephrased. Function’s called push_stack and the comment says, “This pushes to the stack.” Thank you.

You’ve got to say in the comment something that’s not there already. What’s it for? Either a higher-level or a lower-level description, depending on what’s most important. Sometimes the most important thing is, what is this for? Why would I use it? And sometimes the most important thing is, what’s the range of inputs that this expects?

Long variable names. I’m not a fan of Hungarian notation, but I think using actual English words to describe things, except for loop iterators, where it’s obvious. Just as much verbosity as possible, I guess.

I usually end up putting the leaf nodes up at the top of the file—try to keep it basically structured that way. And then usually up at the top, document the API. What are the top-level entry points of this file, this module, whatever? With an object-y language, that’s done by the language for you. With C you’ve got to be a little more explicit about that. In C I do tend to try to have a .h file for every .c file that has all the externs for it. And anything that’s not exported in the .h file is static. And then I’ll go back and say, “Wait, I need to call that,” and I change it. But you’re doing that explicitly rather than just by accident.

Sometimes. Normally I would think that someone who is a big fan of C++ templates—keep me away from that guy. But that might just be a snap judgment on my part. Maybe in the context they’ve used them, they actually work fine. Certainly with the folks I’ve worked with, ability to argue their point was important because we all ended up being a pretty argumentative bunch. With that environment, that helped a lot. That certainly doesn’t have anything to do with programming ability. That’s just interpersonal-dynamics stuff.

I know I ended up doing a lot of reading of code and asking questions. I think one thing that’s really important is to not be afraid of your ignorance. If you don’t understand how something works, ask someone who does. A lot of people are skittish about that. And that doesn’t help anybody. Not knowing something doesn’t mean you’re dumb—it just means you don’t know it yet.

So there were definitely times, especially early on, where I felt like, “Oh my god, I don’t know anything.” It would just be embarrassing—but that was just being insecure. Being the young kid around all these people with PhDs— “Aaah, I don’t know anything! I’m an idiot! How did I bluff my way into this?”

That just seemed bizarre and wrong. But I don’t know. Maybe it’s not wrong. Maybe that’s the caveman thoughts: “Back in my day, we programmed with a nine-volt battery and a steady hand!”

I actually haven’t read very many of those. The one I always recommend is Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, which a lot of people are afraid of because it’s Lispy, but I think does a really good job of teaching programming without teaching a language.

Seibel: Is there a key skill programmers must have?

Zawinski: Well, curiosity – taking things apart. Wanting to know what’s going on under the hood. I think that’s really the basis of it. Without that I don’t think you get very far. That’s your primary way of acquiring knowledge. Taking something apart and looking at it is how you learn to build your own. At least for me. I’ve read very few books about computers. My experience has been digging through source code or reference manuals. I’ve got a goal and, alright, to do this I need to know what this thing does and what this thing does. And I’ll just sort of random-walk through that until I find where I’m going.

Brad Fitzpatrick

Foundations of Python Network Programming

The Building Blocks: Stacks and Libraries

Geoprocessing with Python

Week 1: Reading Vector Data with OGR

Week 2: Creating Geometries and Writing Vector Data with OGR

point = ogr.Geometry(ogr.wkbPoint);     # Usage: point.AddPoint(x, y, z=0)

line = ogr.Geometry(ogr.wkbLineString)
line.AddPoint(10, 10)
line.AddPoint(20, 20)
line.SetPoint(0, 30, 30)

outring = ogr.Geometry(ogr.wkbLineRing)
outring.AddPoint(0, 100)
# ...
outring.CloseRings()
outring.AddPoint(0, 100)

polygon = ogr.Geometry(ogr.wkbPolygon)
polygon.AddGeometry(outring)
polygon.AddGeometry(inring)

print polygon.GetGeometryCount()
ring = polygon.GetGeometryRef(INDEX)
featureDefn = feature.GetDefnRef()
feateruDefn = layer.GetLayerDefn()
fieldDefn = feature.GetFieldDefnRef(0)
fieldDefn = featureDefn.GetFieldDefn(1)
#Create one from Scratch:
fieldDefn = ogr.FieldDefn('id', ogr.OFTString) # ogr.OFTInteger...
fieldDefn.SetWidth(4)

[datasource = [
                       layers = [
                                  features obey featureDefn = [
                                                                geometry +
                                                                fieldDefns
                                                              ]
                                ]
                     ]

Write to Shp file

dataSource = driver.CreateDataSource('new-shpfile.shp')
layer = dataSource.CreateLayer('new-layer', geom_type=ogr.wkbPoint)
layer.CreateField(fieldDefn)
featureDefn = layer.GetLayerDefn()
feature = ogr.Feature(featureDefn) # Create a new feature
feature.SetGeometry(point)
feature.SetField('id', 23)
layer.CreateFeature(feature) # Write the feature to the layer

Week 3: Filters and Simple Analysis of Vector Data

Attribute Filters

layer.GetFeatureCount()
layer.SetAttributeFilter()
layer.GetFeatureCount() # see, some features filtered out
layer.SetSpatialFilter(<geom>)
layer.SetSpatialFilterRect(min_x, min_y, max_x, max_y)

More Complicated Filters: SQL support refs,

caveats(警告): not all sql is supported

# 0/1 for True/False
geom1.Intersect(geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1 # 我理解的,Intersect是 A 和 B 是否 Intersect
geom1.Disjoint (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1
geom1.Touches  (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1 # TouchES,是 A TouchES B
geom1.Crosses  (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1
geom1.Within   (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1
geom1.Contains (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1
geom1.Overlaps (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1 # A & B overlaps, or A overlaps B, like
geom1.Equal    (geom2)           # ==> 0 / 1
geom1.Intersection       (geom2) # ==> geom_intersection
geom1.Union              (geom2) # ==> geom_union
geom1.Difference         (geom2) # ==> geom_difference
geom1.SymmetricDifference(geom2) # ==> geom_symmdiff
geom1.Buffer          (distance) # ==> geom_buffer
geom1.GetEnvelope             () # ==> Get extent as a list,
                                 #     a.k.a (minX, maxX, minY, maxY)

Week 4: Projections and Functions

For Spatial Reference Objects, different ways to specify projections

Week 5: Reading Raster Data with GDAL

GDAL, supports about 75 raster formats:

import gdal
         # All gdalconst constants start with a prefix which minimizes
         # the possibility of conflicts with other modules, import them:
from gdalconst import *

GDAL data drivers

Getting Image Dimensions

cols  = dataset.RasterXSize
rows  = dataset.RasterYSize
bands = dataset.RasterCount

Getting Georeference Info

adfGeoTransform[0]      # top left x
adfGeoTransform[1]      # w-e pixel resolution
adfGeoTransform[2]      # rotation, 0 if image is "north up"
adfGeoTransform[3]      # top left y
adfGeoTransform[4]      # rotation, 0 if image is "north up"
adfGeoTransform[5]      # n-s pixel resolution
# Coordinates are for top left corners of pixels
# unlike Imagine, which uses centers

ADF?

file extension for the Arc/Info Binary Grid format, another df from Arc/info is ARC/INFO ASCII Grid format maybe means “Acr/info df(data format)”

geotransform = dataset.GetGeoTransform()
originX      = geotransform[0]
originY      = geotransform[3] # Good Design!!!
pixelWidth   = geotransform[1]
pixelHeight  = geotransform[5]

Computing Pixel Offsets

Week 6: Map Algebra and Writing Raster Data

Manipulating data with Numeric

compute NDVI on raster.img

NDVI = (NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED), NIR(band3), RED(band2)

data2 = band2.ReadAsArray(0, 0, cols, rows).astype(Numeric.Float16)
data3 = band3.ReadAsArray(0, 0, cols, rows).astype(Numeric.Float16)
mask = Numeric.greater(data3 + data2, 0) # not 0
ndvi = Numeric.choose(mask, (-99, (data3 - data2) / (data3 + data2)))

Creating a New Dataset

driver = inDataset.GetDriver()
outDataset = driver.Create(filename, cols, rows, 1, GDT_Float32)
# Space on disk is allocated immediately

Georeferencing a new data set

geoTransform = inDataset.GetGeoTransform()
outDataset.SetGeoTransform(geoTransform )
proj = inDataset.GetProjection()
outDataset.SetProjection(proj)

Writing to a raster data set

outBand = outDataset.GetRasterBand(1)
outBand.WriteArray(ndvi, 0, 0) # WriteArray(array, xoff, yoff)

Reading & writing by block

blockSize = 64
for i in range(0, rows, blockSize):
       if i + blockSize < rows:
             numRows = blockSize
       else:
             numRows = rows – i
       for j in range(0, cols, blockSize):
             if j + blockSize < cols:
                  numCols = blockSize
             else:
                  numCols = cols – j
       data = band.ReadAsArray(j, i, numCols, numRows)
       # do calculations here to create outData array
       outBand.WriteArray(outData, j, i)

Setting histogram

outBand.SetNoDataValue(-99)
histogram = outBand.GetDefaultHistogram()
outBand.SetDefaultHistogram(histogram[0], histogram[1], histogram[3])

Week 7: More Raster Processing

gdal.CreateAndReprojectImage( <source_dataset>, <output_filename>,
                              src_wkt = <source_wkt>,
                              dst_wkt = <output_wkt>,
                              dst_driver = <Driver>,
                              eResampleAlg = <GDALResampleAlg>)
import gdal, osr
from gdalconst import *
inFn = 'd:/data/classes/python/data/aster.img'
outFn = 'd:/data/classes/python/data/aster_geo.img'
driver = gdal.GetDriverByName('HFA')
driver.Register()
# input WKT
inDs = gdal.Open(inFn)
inWkt = inDs.GetProjection()
# output WKT
outSr = osr.SpatialReference()
outSr.ImportFromEPSG(4326)
outWkt = outSr.ExportToWkt()
# reproject
gdal.CreateAndReprojectImage(inDs, outFn, src_wkt=inWkt, dst_wkt=outWkt, dst_driver=driver, eResampleAlg=GRA_Bilinear)
inDs = None

GDAL & OGR utilities

Improv Wisdom: Don’t Prepare, Just Show Up

  1. The older Days

always go by the rules, use the recipe, follow the pattern, rehearse the script, copy the masters, etc.

Be short, follow the lines in everything.

As improvisers we discover that we don’t need this unrealistic guarantee to begin. The only real failure is not doing anything.

Why not explore, get moving on your life, kick-start your dreams, paint outside the lines?

they are can-do people, they improvise.

Improvisation ( [,ɪmprəvaɪ'zeʃən]即兴创作;即席演奏) is not the study of comedy.

An excellent manual on swimming is useless until you jump into the pool.

My aim is to nudge out of your comfortable poolside chair, guide you to climb onte the high board, and cheer you on as you dive into to the clear, crystal water.

Don’t over acting, it’s a tool should always be put into service with a healthy dose of common sense.

A successful life involves both planning and improvising.

“going with the flow”?

“Pisces Mortui Solum Cum Flumine Natant”. (Only the dead fish go with the flow“)

Emacs Lisp Tutorial]xah_lisp

ELisp Basics

message, nil, integerp, equal, string-equal, setq, if, let, progn, while, interactive

(print (format "yay %d" x))
(defun fun_name (params) "msg" body)

Overview of Text-Processing in Emacs Lisp

point
point-{min, max}
line-{beginning, end}-position
region-{beginning, end}
{goto, forward, backward}-char
delete-{char, region}
insert

Emacs Lisp Examples

How to Write a Emacs Major Mode for Syntax Coloring

How to Evaluate Emacs Lisp Code

Inkscape Official Tutorials

Basic tutorial

Advanced tutorial

, and - text tool - The ultimate power tool of Inkscape is the XML editor

[Shapes tutorial(http://inkscape.org/doc/shapes/tutorial-shapes.html)

Rectangle: F4

Ellipse: F5

Star

Spiral

Conclusion

Inkscape’s shape tools are very powerful. Learn their tricks and play with them at your leisurethis will pay off when you do your design work, because using shapes instead of simple paths often makes vector art faster to create and easier to modify.

Bitmap tracing tutorial

Brightness Threshold

Optimal Edge Detection

Color Quantization

After tracing, we Simplify

Calligraphy(书法) tutorial

  1. There are three main styles of calligraphy:

Calligraphy is not only fun; it’s a deeply spiritual art that may transform your outlook on everything you do and see. Inkscape’s calligraphy tool can only serve as a modest introduction. And yet it is very nice to play with and may be useful in real design. Enjoy!

Elements of Design tutorial 1. Overview

Composition: make them together

Tips and tricks Interpolate

Learning IPython for Interactive Computing and Data Visualization

  1. Get the example code

§1. Getting Started with IPython

  1. Packages (check all in one site: PyPI - Python Package Index)

§3. Numeric Computing with IPython

before we start this chapter: 1. run ipython notebook in console 2. Go to http://127.0.0.1:8888/ 3. Import notebook: Leaing_IPython/Chapter 03/9932_03_{01,02,03}.ipynb See how to do it, Pic 01, Pic 02 (my screenshots)

  1. Code 1

    x = array([1, 2, 3])
    x.shape
    x.dtype # => dtype('int32')
    x = array([1, 2, 3], dtype=float64)
    y = np.fromstring('1 2 5 10', dtype=int, sep=' ')
    In[10]: print "good" # => good
    In[11]: exec In[10] # => good

    Blaze = Numpy + Pandas + SciPy + Numba + Theano

log: $1. created long time ago, Friday, March 07 2014; $2. added something, Friday, March 07 2014; $3. Sat Apr 12 21:08:18 CST 2014: modified;

Refs

                                  Run, Forest, Run

§2. How Python Runs Programs

  1. Python Interpreter
log: $1. Note of Python --- Fri Jan 24, 2014;

TOC:

§1. Networking Models

Good Starting Point: Basic network architecture and construction How to: focuses on the practical TCP/IP model, using the OSI model as a reference point.

  1. What is a Model
  1. TCP/IP

§3. Internet Protocol

§4. Address Resolution Protocol

§5. Network Equipment

§6. Internet Control Message Protocol

§7. Subnetting and Other Masking Acrobatics

§3. Git Branching

Some people refer to the branching model in Git as its “killer feature”. Unlike many other VCSs, Git encourages a workflow that branches and merges often, even multiple times in a day. Understanding and mastering this feature gives you a powerful and unique tool and can literally change the way that you develop.

  1. What a Branch Is (better check this site yourself)

    # Follow me, in bash(zsh has some trouble with the comments)
    mkdir branching && cd branching && git init
    touch README test.rb LICENSE
    git add README test.rb LICENSE
    git commit -m 'initial commit of my project'
    git branch testing && git checkout testing # switch to branch:testing
    echo "hello world from testing" > test.rb
    git commit -a -m 'commit from testing'
    git checkout master && echo "hello world from master" > test.rb
    git commit -a -m "commit from master"

    how it looks now? check me HEAD pointer to show your working branch Creating a new branch is as quick and simple as writing 41 bytes cost of a branch: 40 characters(SHA-1 checksum) and a newline

Too Busy these days…

Main** » 读书笔记**

TOC

Preface

  1. What this book covers

§2. Knowing Your Data

  1. Importing data from CSV

    import csv
    ##### Read #####
    csvfilepath='http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/blog-ch02-data.csv'
    f = open(csvfilepath)
    reader = csv.reader(f)
    print reader.next() # read the first line, maybe title
    data = [row for row in reader] # read the other lines
    print data
    ##### Write #####
    with open(filename,'wb') as f:
    writer = csv.writer(f)
    for row in range(10):
        writer.writerow([row + 1, '2012-01-%s' % (19 + row)])

    For more, see Python CSV File API For larger text files, better use numpy.loadtxt(), or numpy.genfromtxt() (for better with missing data)

    import numpy
    data = numpy.loadtxt('ch02-data.csv', dtype='string', delimiter=',')
log: $1. created three days ago, today is Friday, February 28 2014; $2. Thu Aug  6 18:28:19     2015;
~~ og: $1 created at Wed Apr 9 11:58:17 CST 2014; ~~

TOC

§ 2. The Internet Address Architecture

  1. Introduction

§ 4. ARP: Address Resolution Protocol

  1. Introduction

§ 6. System Configuration: DHCP and Autoconfiguration

  1. Introduction

§ 8. ICMPv4 and ICMPv6: Internet Control Message Protocol

  1. Introduction

§10. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and IP Fragmentation

  1. Introduction

§12. TCP: The Transmission Control Protocol (Preliminaries)

  1. Introduction

§14. TCP Timeout and Retransmission

  1. Introduction

§16. TCP Congestion Control

  1. Introduction

§18. Security: EAP, IPsec, TLS, DNSSEC, and DKIM

  1. Introduction

Main** » 读书笔记**

TOC

3 系统

uname -a # system information:all
getconf LONG_BIT # 查看系统是32位还是64位
file /sbin/init # uname -m
# 查看Ubuntu版本, LSB, Linux Standard Base
lsb_release -a # `cat /etc/lsb-release` doesn't work
lsmod # Show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel
lspci # list all PCI devices
lsusb # list USB devices, better choice: lsusb -v
ethtool eth0
ethtool -s eth0 wol g # activate Wake on LAN
dmidecode -t memory # 查看内存型号
free # check memory usage
ulimit -a
ipcs -l # provide information on ipc facilities
xrandr # primitive command line interface to RandR extension, about DISPLAY

5 进程

top # 动态显示进程执行情况
ps -AFL
w # better than who
xkill # select window to be killed
lsof # list open files
nohup

7 网络

arping IP地址 # 根据IP查网卡地址
nmblookup -A IP地址 # 根据IP查电脑名, I don't have that
ifconfig eth0 |awk '/inet/ {split($2,x,":");print x[2]}' # check your ip address
lsof -i :80
# check you MAC address
ifconfig eth0 | head -1 | awk '{print $5}' # or
cat /sys/class/net/eth0/address # I prefer `ifconfig wlan0`
# 立即让网络支持nat
echo 1 | sudo tee /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
sudo iptables -t nat -I POSTROUTING -j MASQUERADE
# 查看路由信息
netstat -rn
route -n
# 修改网卡MAC地址的方法
sudo ifconfig eth0 down #关闭网卡
sudo ifconfig eth0 hw ether 00:AA:BB:CC:DD:EE #然后改地址
sudo ifconfig eth0 up #然后启动网卡
whois baidu.com
traceroute baidu.com
dhclient # 重新从服务器获得IP地址, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Client
# 如何查看HTTP头
w3m -dump_head http://www.example.com
# 或 curl --head http://www.example.com
# curl - transfer a URL
python -m SimpleHTTPServer # 进入目录后运行, to share this folder, fantastic !!!

9 安全

# 检查本地是否存在安全隐患: rkhunter
# 如何安装杀毒软件: clamav
# Linux下可以使用的商业杀毒软件: kaspersky, avast, BitDefender
# 防止服务器被暴力破解ssh密码: denyhosts
# 查看系统
last # and, `lastlog`

11 用户管理

adduser, deluser # 但是最好不要真删除一个用户,把他的密码弄的登不进去就行
passwd, chfn
# 禁用/启用某个帐户
usermod -L/-U <userid>
passwd  -l/-u <userid>
usermod -G admin -a 用户名

13 中文

im-switch -c # switch input method
# check encoding
enca <file> # file <file>
# 转换文件名由GBK为UTF8
convmv -r -f cp936 -t utf8 --notest --nosmart *
iconv -f GBK -t UTF-8 gbkfile.txt -o utf8file.txt
iconv -f gbk -t utf8 $i > newfile
# 转换 mp3 标签编码 #
# 控制台下显示中文 #
# lftp 登录远程Windows中文FTP # 
# 乱码
apt-get install poppler-data # PDF 乱码
# unzip 中文文件名乱码
apt-get install p7zip-full # install 7zip
export LANG=zh_CN.GBK  #临时在控制台修改环境为zh_CN.GBK,然后解压缩即可
7za / 7zr / 7z e doc.zip # unzip it
# 查看具体字体名称
fc-match monospace #=>: LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"

15 影像

sudo apt-get install swfmill # decode swf
# 如何保存串流视频(mms/rtsp)
mencoder -vf harddup -oac mp3lame -lameopts vbr=3 -ovc xvid -xvidencopts fixed_quant=4 -of avi foo.rmvb bar.avi # rmvb » avi
mencoder -oac mp3lame -lameopts aq=7:vbr=2:q=6 -srate 44100 -ovc xvid -xvidencopts fixed_quant=4 -of avi foo.vob bar.avi # DVD » avi
ffmpeg2theora --optimize --deinterlace <film> # any format to ogv
# CD 抓轨为 mp3 (有损)/Flac (无损)
abcde -o mp3 -b
abcde -o flac -b
# 批量缩小图片到30%
for i in *.jpg; do convert -resize 30%x30% "$i" "sm-$i"; done
# 批量转换jpg到png (通常都是png2jpg吧,省空间)
for i in *.jpg; do convert $i `echo $i | sed -e 's/jpg$/png/'`; done
# text2img
convert -size 200x30 xc:transparent -font /usr/share/fonts/truetype/wqy/wqy-microhei.ttc -fill red -pointsize 16 -draw "text 5,15 '测试中文转为图片'" test.png # fantastic!
optipng, pngcrush, convert *.jpg out.pdf
# pdf2txt, pdf2png, jpg info(identify -verbose), mkv info(mkvtoolnix, `mkvinfo`)
# 抓取桌面操作的视频
ffmpeg -f x11grab -s wxga -r 25 -i :0.0 -sameq /tmp/out.mpg
# 命令行读出文本
espeak -vzh "从前有座山"
# 命令行抓屏, both two utils cant be used in tty1
scrot -s screenshot.png
gnome-screenshot

17 Nautilus - 就是 file explorer

# Ctrl+h
# Ctrl+l
# 特殊 URI 地址
* computer:/// - 全部挂载的设备和网络
* network:/// - 浏览可用的网络
* burn:/// - 一个刻录 CDs/DVDs 的数据虚拟目录
* smb:/// - 可用的 windows/samba 网络资源
* x-nautilus-desktop:/// - 桌面项目和图标
* file:/// - 本地文件
* trash:/// - 本地回收站目录
* ftp:// - FTP 文件夹
* ssh:// - SSH 文件夹
* fonts:/// - 字体文件夹,可将字体文件拖到此处以完成安装
* themes:/// - 系统主题文件夹
##############################################
fc-list |grep 文 # installed fonts, in [~/.fonts] or [/usr/share/fonts]

19 工作区

# Ctrl + ALT + ←
# Ctrl + ALT + →
# 或者,将滚轮鼠标放在工作区图标上滚动

on the right: a bigger workspace switcher

21 数据库

# mysql的数据库存放路径: /var/lib/mysql
# 从mysql中导出和导入数据
# 忘了mysql的root口令怎么办
# 修改mysql的root口令

23 统计

# 统计最常用的10条命令
history | awk '{CMD[$2]++;count++;}END { for (a in CMD)print CMD[a] " " CMD[a]/count*100 "% " a;}' | grep -v "./" | column -c3 -s " " -t | sort -nr | nl | head -n10

works in bash, but not zsh

# calc words frequency
awk '{arr[$1]+=1 }END{for(i in arr){print arr[i]"\t"i}}' FILE_NAME | sort -rn

25 编译和打包

sudo apt-get install build-essential
./configure && make && make install
# get source
sudo apt-get source mysql-server
# 安装编译打包环境
sudo apt-get build-dep mysql-server
# 重新编译并打包Debian化的源码
dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot
# 获得源码并重新打包
apt-get source php5-cgi
#或手工下载源码后使用 dpkg-source -x  php5_5.2.6.dfsg.1-3ubuntu4.1.dsc 解开源码
sudo apt-get build-dep php5-cgi
cd php5-5.2.6.dfsg.1
dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot -uc -b

27 More

long command other command #=> back to long command

这是很久以前的笔记。那时候的策略有误。在选择正确打开方式后,终于 … 把本书读完了。

看书,尤其是单词书、语法书之类,应该先看前一百页的第一个十页,再看第二个一百页的第一个十页。知道看到本书最后,再回去看回顾第一个十页,接着看每一百页的第二个十页。以此看完全书。

图示:

这有一本五百页的书,还没读

[==================================================](100%)
|---100----|---200---|---300---|---400---|----500--|

第一天读了前十页

[>=================================================](100%)

五天就刷到了最后 3

[>=========>=========>=========>=========>=========](100%)

十天、二十天

[>>========>>========>>========>>========>>========](100%)
[>>>>======>>>>======>>>>======>>>>======>>>>======](100%)

五十天,大功告成

[>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>](100%)

当然,我可不建议一本书用了五十天才看完。越快刷一遍越好,多复习,多反复。通常用五天刷一本书为好。不好的内容直接用笔涂掉,绝不再看。

切记:

一鼓作气,再而衰,三而竭


log: $1. Wed Jul  9 21:56:04     2014; $2. Fri Nov 28 23:50:03     2014;

Misc

  1. 阅读前须知

Refs


TOC

                             第一部份:Linux的規劃與安裝

第零章、计算器概论

  1. 计算机硬件癿五大单元

关键词:

進位制 K M G T P
二進位 1024 1024K 1024M 1024G 1024T
十進位 1000 1000K 1000M 1000G 1000T

第一章、Linux是什麼?

  1. Linux就是一套作業系統

第二章、如何正確有效的學習 Linux

  1. Linux當前的應用角色

第三章、主機規劃與磁碟分割

  1. Linux與硬體的搭配

关键词:


第四章、安裝 CentOS 5.x 與多重開機小技巧

关键词:


第五章、首次登入與線上求助 man page

关键词:

                             第二部份:Linux檔案、目錄與磁碟格式

第六章、Linux 的檔案權限與目錄配置

关键词:


第七章、Linux 檔案與目錄管理

关键词:


第八章、Linux 磁碟與檔案系統管理

关键词:

第四部份:Linux使用者管理

第六部份:其他備份文章

var.h

osg::MatrixTransform *joint{1..6}
osg::MatrixTransform *currentJoint
osg::ref_ptr<osg::ShapeDrawable> capsule_arm3
bool showAxis;
osg::TessellationHints *hints;

KeyboradEventHandler.h

键盘

class KeyboardEventHandler : public osgGA::GUIEventHandler
osgGA::GUIEventAdapter::KEYDOWN := ea.getEventType()
'q' := ea.getKey()

ArmMovement.h

class ArmMovement:public QWidget
rotateX, rotateY, rotateZ, rotateXZ, translate

stretchArm: step{1..6}: move six joints, j
closeArm: step{6..1}: move six joints, i
xCarMove: currentPosition, lastPosition
plusArm3, reduceArm3: 这部分比较难

OSGDisplayer.h

class OSGDisplayer : public QWidget, public osgViewer::CompositeViewer

createShaps( double length, int beamNum );
buildBase( osg::MatrixTransform *prev )
buildArm{1..3}( osg::MatrixTransform *prev )
buildCar( vector<float> *data, osg::MatrixTransform *prev )

// translate -> scale -> translate back

void paintEvent( QPaintEvent * event )

Bridge.h

class Bridge : public QMainWindow
private:
    Ui::Bridge *ui; // 啥都没有

ui->gridLayout->addWidght( displayer )

Note

osg::Matrix::
    * makeScale( v1, v2, v3)
    * makeRotate(angle, x, y, z): rotateZ = makeRotate(angle, 0, 0, 1)
    * makeTranslate( x, y, z)
osg::Matrix::scale/rotate/translate

osg::Node::
    * getBound().center().x()
    * getBound().radius()

osg::Camera::
    * setProjectionMatrixAsPerspective( fov, ratio, znear, nfar)
    * setProjectionMatrixAsOrtho( left, right, bottom, top, znear, zfar );
    * setViewMatrixAsLookAt( eyePoint, center, upDirection );
osgViewer::compositeViewer::
    * getView( uint idx )->addEventHandler( new KeyboardEventHandler )


P.S. 没想到这个摘抄还有几个人喜欢。但是当时的截屏弄的不好。有时间我会重新处理一下。就像这篇文章:【向大鱼致敬 (多图)】一样用脚本把图片处理的规范点。

P.P.S. 之前没有加 Log,现在补上(充分说明了这是一篇老文章)


log: $1. Tue Aug 12 13:27:49     2014;

超萌大法:

yum install apt

然后整个世界就美好了~

data

41 286 357 71 298 426 39 241 350 47 283 399 22 201 449 70 239 363 87 290 449 62 209 417 39 265 415 55 229 363 12 294 442 1 296 378 39 270 380 7 228 379 5 277 385 71 215 442 75 243 424 13 280 414 40 244 380 80 234 429 55 268 435 1 275 434 2 296 433 45 204 446 51 226 389 78 279 370 79 217 407 54 273 426 48 247 400 41 252 423 50 276 362 22 283 444

code

#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<stdarg.h>
#include<math.h>

#define DONE NULL
#define THRESHOLD 0.01

enum {
    N_CLUSTERS = 3,
    MAX_ITERATIONS = 25,
    MAX_DISTANCE = 100,
};

typedef struct _kmeans_t {
    size_t n;
    size_t k;
    double *X;
    double *C;
    size_t *A;
    FILE *ifp;
    FILE *ofp;
} kmeans_t;

/* funcs */
void bye (void);

size_t belongs_to (double *c, size_t nc, double *v);

FILE *getifp (const char *fn);
FILE *getofp (const char *fn);

/* tasts */
void do_tasks (kmeans_t *km, ...);

void km_pipein (kmeans_t *km);
void km_init_clusters (kmeans_t *km);
void km_reassignment (kmeans_t *km);
void km_reclustering (const kmeans_t *km, double *c);
void km_loop (kmeans_t *km);
void km_pipeout (kmeans_t *km);
void km_freeall (kmeans_t *km);


/* main */
int main (void)
{
    atexit (bye); /* we must say goodbye before we exit */

    kmeans_t km = {
        .n = 0,
        .k = 3,
        .X = NULL,
        .A = NULL,
        .ifp = getifp ("data2.txt"),
        .ofp = getofp ("data-out.txt")
    };

    /* task to do */
    do_tasks (&km,
              km_pipein,
              km_init_clusters,
              km_loop,
              km_pipeout,
              km_freeall,
              DONE
             );

    /* exit */
    exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
}


/* funcs */
void bye (void)
{
    printf ("bye bye\n");
    getc (stdin);
    printf ("bye~\n");
}

size_t belongs_to (double *c, size_t nc, double *v)
{
    size_t i;
    size_t a; /* anchor */

    for (i = 1, a = 0; i < nc; ++i) {
        if ( fabs (*(c+i)-*v) < fabs (*(c+a)-*v) ) {
           a = i;
        }
    }

    return a;
}


FILE *getifp (const char *fn)
{
    FILE *ifp = fopen (fn, "r");
    if (NULL == ifp) {
        fprintf (stderr, "cannot open %s for reading", fn);
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    return ifp;
}

FILE *getofp (const char *fn)
{
    FILE *ofp = fopen (fn, "w");
    if (NULL == ofp) {
        fprintf (stderr, "cannot open %s for writing\n", fn);
        exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
    }
    return ofp;
}

/* tasts */
void do_tasks (kmeans_t *km, ...)
{
    void (*task)() = NULL;

    va_list tasks;
    va_start (tasks, km);
    while (DONE != (
                    task = va_arg ( tasks, void(*)() )
                   )
          ) {
        (*task)(km);
    }
    return;
}

void km_pipein (kmeans_t *km)
{
    double tmp;
    size_t n;

    while (fscanf (km->ifp, "%lf", &tmp) == 1) ++(km->n);
    rewind (km->ifp);

    km->X = (double *) malloc (km->n*sizeof(double));
    for (n = 0; n < km->n; ++n) {
        fscanf (km->ifp, "%lf", km->X+n);
    }
    return;
}

void km_init_clusters (kmeans_t *km)
{
    size_t k;

    km->C = (double *)  malloc (km->k*sizeof(double));
    km->A = (size_t *)  malloc (km->n*sizeof(size_t));

    for (k = 0; k < km->k; ++k) {
        *(km->C+k) = *(km->X+k);
    }
    return;
}

void km_reassignment (kmeans_t *km)
{
    size_t n;

    for (n = 0; n < km->n; ++n) {
        *(km->A+n) = belongs_to (km->C, km->k, km->X+n);
    }
}


void km_reclustering (const kmeans_t *km, double *c)
{
    size_t n, k;

    for (k = 0; k < km->k; ++k) {
        *(c+k) = 0.0;
    }

    for (n = 0; n < km->n; ++n) {
        *(c+*(km->A+n)) += *(km->X+n);
    }

    for (k = 0; k < km->k; ++k) {
        *(c+k) /= (double)km->k;
    }

    return;
}

void km_loop (kmeans_t *km)
{
    size_t n;
    size_t k;
    size_t i;

    double diff;

    double *c = (double *) malloc (km->k*sizeof(double));

    km_reassignment (km);

    /* loops */
    for (i = 0; i < MAX_ITERATIONS; ++i) {
        km_reclustering (km, c);
        diff = 0.0;
        for (k = 0; k < km->k; ++k) {
            diff += fabs (*(km->C+k) - *(c+k));
        }

        if (diff < THRESHOLD) {
            break;
        }

        km_reassignment (km);
    } // end for

    free (c);

    return;
}

void km_pipeout (kmeans_t *km)
{
    size_t n;
    size_t k;

    fprintf (km->ofp, "--overall:\n");
    for (n = 0; n < km->n; ++n) {
        fprintf (km->ofp, "%10sP[%2d]: %10.4lf, cluster: %4d\n", "",
                 n,
                 *(km->X+n),
                 *(km->A+n)
                );
    }

    for (k = 0; k < km->k; ++k) {
        fprintf (km->ofp, "%10sC[%2d]: center: %10.4lf\n", "",
                 k,
                 *(km->C+k)
                );
    }

    return;
}

void km_freeall (kmeans_t *km)
{
    fclose (km->ifp);
    fclose (km->ofp);

    free (km->X);
    free (km->A);
    free (km->C);

    return;
}

GCC 编译结果

--overall:
          P[ 0]:    41.0000, cluster:    0
          P[ 1]:   286.0000, cluster:    1
          P[ 2]:   357.0000, cluster:    2
          P[ 3]:    71.0000, cluster:    0
          P[ 4]:   298.0000, cluster:    1
          P[ 5]:   426.0000, cluster:    2
          P[ 6]:    39.0000, cluster:    0
          P[ 7]:   241.0000, cluster:    1
          P[ 8]:   350.0000, cluster:    2
          P[ 9]:    47.0000, cluster:    0
          P[10]:   283.0000, cluster:    1
          P[11]:   399.0000, cluster:    2
          P[12]:    22.0000, cluster:    0
          P[13]:   201.0000, cluster:    1
          P[14]:   449.0000, cluster:    2
          P[15]:    70.0000, cluster:    0
          P[16]:   239.0000, cluster:    1
          P[17]:   363.0000, cluster:    2
          P[18]:    87.0000, cluster:    0
          P[19]:   290.0000, cluster:    1
          P[20]:   449.0000, cluster:    2
          P[21]:    62.0000, cluster:    0
          P[22]:   209.0000, cluster:    1
          P[23]:   417.0000, cluster:    2
          P[24]:    39.0000, cluster:    0
          P[25]:   265.0000, cluster:    1
          P[26]:   415.0000, cluster:    2
          P[27]:    55.0000, cluster:    0
          P[28]:   229.0000, cluster:    1
          P[29]:   363.0000, cluster:    2
          P[30]:    12.0000, cluster:    0
          P[31]:   294.0000, cluster:    1
          P[32]:   442.0000, cluster:    2
          P[33]:     1.0000, cluster:    0
          P[34]:   296.0000, cluster:    1
          P[35]:   378.0000, cluster:    2
          P[36]:    39.0000, cluster:    0
          P[37]:   270.0000, cluster:    1
          P[38]:   380.0000, cluster:    2
          P[39]:     7.0000, cluster:    0
          P[40]:   228.0000, cluster:    1
          P[41]:   379.0000, cluster:    2
          P[42]:     5.0000, cluster:    0
          P[43]:   277.0000, cluster:    1
          P[44]:   385.0000, cluster:    2
          P[45]:    71.0000, cluster:    0
          P[46]:   215.0000, cluster:    1
          P[47]:   442.0000, cluster:    2
          P[48]:    75.0000, cluster:    0
          P[49]:   243.0000, cluster:    1
          P[50]:   424.0000, cluster:    2
          P[51]:    13.0000, cluster:    0
          P[52]:   280.0000, cluster:    1
          P[53]:   414.0000, cluster:    2
          P[54]:    40.0000, cluster:    0
          P[55]:   244.0000, cluster:    1
          P[56]:   380.0000, cluster:    2
          P[57]:    80.0000, cluster:    0
          P[58]:   234.0000, cluster:    1
          P[59]:   429.0000, cluster:    2
          P[60]:    55.0000, cluster:    0
          P[61]:   268.0000, cluster:    1
          P[62]:   435.0000, cluster:    2
          P[63]:     1.0000, cluster:    0
          P[64]:   275.0000, cluster:    1
          P[65]:   434.0000, cluster:    2
          P[66]:     2.0000, cluster:    0
          P[67]:   296.0000, cluster:    1
          P[68]:   433.0000, cluster:    2
          P[69]:    45.0000, cluster:    0
          P[70]:   204.0000, cluster:    1
          P[71]:   446.0000, cluster:    2
          P[72]:    51.0000, cluster:    0
          P[73]:   226.0000, cluster:    1
          P[74]:   389.0000, cluster:    2
          P[75]:    78.0000, cluster:    0
          P[76]:   279.0000, cluster:    1
          P[77]:   370.0000, cluster:    2
          P[78]:    79.0000, cluster:    0
          P[79]:   217.0000, cluster:    1
          P[80]:   407.0000, cluster:    2
          P[81]:    54.0000, cluster:    0
          P[82]:   273.0000, cluster:    1
          P[83]:   426.0000, cluster:    2
          P[84]:    48.0000, cluster:    0
          P[85]:   247.0000, cluster:    1
          P[86]:   400.0000, cluster:    2
          P[87]:    41.0000, cluster:    0
          P[88]:   252.0000, cluster:    1
          P[89]:   423.0000, cluster:    2
          P[90]:    50.0000, cluster:    0
          P[91]:   276.0000, cluster:    1
          P[92]:   362.0000, cluster:    2
          P[93]:    22.0000, cluster:    0
          P[94]:   283.0000, cluster:    1
          P[95]:   444.0000, cluster:    2
          C[ 0]: center:    41.0000
          C[ 1]: center:   286.0000
          C[ 2]: center:   357.0000

VS2010 编译

没有结果,已花样作死,死绝。

我不应该乱玩函数指针。。。

log: $1. Sat Sep 27 12:54:32     2014;
% VicPad, 2015
%
% author: Tangzhixiong
% padsize: 800 x 600


% #VicPad Introduction

% @<pos int>
# VicPad
is blend of Vim & Markdown,
and with a great GUI support.

% @<pos int>
# Vic Grammer
    % comment, meta data
    % padsize: canvas size of pad
    % #<TITLE>
    % @<pos int>

% @<pos int>
# Vic Concept
vim gene: a, i, A, I, m, v, `
and more: <space>, [Scope], [color]
alse: mouse interaction

% @<pos int>
# More about [Scope]
1. doc scope
2. pad scope
3. sec scope (section)
4. txt scope (all file, in text sense)

% @<pos int>
# More about [color]
color in #RGB,
color in name: red, green, blue, etc.
color refer: % defcolor shit yellow


% #Why VicPad

% @<pos int>
# Markdown & Vim
md: good, but not enough,
    no color support,
    no GUI, no block concept,
    no...
Vim, really powerful
    why not use it in a special GUI application?

% @<pos int>
# more to do
...

The goal of VicPad is: parse the above text file, then generate beautiful slides.

  1. easy to write,
  2. easy to share
  3. fun to explore
  4. hard to live without it

Tools I need:


睡覺!!!

Refs


Gnat:

从 GEB 里知道了 Escher,你可能没听过 Escher,但你一定见过他的作品。

01-mc-escher

### 02-eschers-father ### 03-wild-west ### 04-eight-heads ### 05-the-second-day-of-creation ### 06-self-portrait ### 07-castrovalva ### 08-italian-town ### 09-atrani ### 10-still-life-with-mirror ### 11-hand-with-reflecting-sphere ### 12-still-life-and-street ### 13-metamorphosis-i ### 14-development-i ### 15-day-and-night-1938 ### 16-reptiles-1943 ### 17-balcony-1945 ### 18-three-spheres-ii ### 19-other-world-1947 ### 20-gallerty-1946 ### 21-drawing-hands-1948 ### 22-contrast-1950 ### 23-relativity-1953 ### 24-waterfall-1961 ### 25-snakes-1969


老习惯,上面的源码:(Markdown 就是好,随便拷贝)

---

#### Refs

- [M.C. Escher - Life and Work][mc-escher]
- [M.C. Escher - Image Categories – Most Popular][mc-escher-categories]
- [哥德尔、艾舍尔、巴赫书:集异璧之大成(豆瓣)][geb]

[mc-escher]: http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/features/slideshows/mc-escher-life-and-work.html#
[mc-escher-categories]: http://www.mcescher.com/gallery/most-popular/
[geb]: http://book.douban.com/subject/1291204/



---

Gnat:

> 从 GEB 里知道了 Escher,你可能没听过 Escher,但你一定见过他的作品。

### 01-mc-escher
![][01]
### 02-eschers-father
![][02]
### 03-wild-west
![][03]
### 04-eight-heads
![][04]
### 05-the-second-day-of-creation
![][05]
### 06-self-portrait
![][06]
### 07-castrovalva
![][07]
### 08-italian-town
![][08]
### 09-atrani
![][09]
### 10-still-life-with-mirror
![][10]
### 11-hand-with-reflecting-sphere
![][11]
### 12-still-life-and-street
![][12]
### 13-metamorphosis-i
![][13]
### 14-development-i
![][14]
### 15-day-and-night-1938
![][15]
### 16-reptiles-1943
![][16]
### 17-balcony-1945
![][17]
### 18-three-spheres-ii
![][18]
### 19-other-world-1947
![][19]
### 20-gallerty-1946
![][20]
### 21-drawing-hands-1948
![][21]
### 22-contrast-1950
![][22]
### 23-relativity-1953
![][23]
### 24-waterfall-1961
![][24]
### 25-snakes-1969
![][25]


[01]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/01-mc-escher.jpg
[02]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/02-eschers-father.jpg
[03]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/03-wild-west.jpg
[04]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/04-eight-heads.jpg
[05]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/05-the-second-day-of-creation.jpg
[06]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/06-self-portrait.jpg
[07]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/07-castrovalva.jpg
[08]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/08-italian-town.jpg
[09]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/09-atrani.jpg
[10]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/10-still-life-with-mirror.jpg
[11]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/11-hand-with-reflecting-sphere.jpg
[12]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/12-still-life-and-street.jpg
[13]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/13-metamorphosis-i.jpg
[14]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/14-development-i.jpg
[15]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/15-day-and-night-1938.jpg
[16]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/16-reptiles-1943.jpg
[17]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/17-balcony-1945.jpg
[18]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/18-three-spheres-ii.jpg
[19]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/19-other-world-1947.jpg
[20]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/20-gallerty-1946.jpg
[21]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/21-drawing-hands-1948.jpg
[22]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/22-contrast-1950.jpg
[23]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/23-relativity-1953.jpg
[24]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/24-waterfall-1961.jpg
[25]: http://gnat-tang-shared-image.qiniudn.com/img/25-snakes-1969.jpg

P.S. 让我写评论太为难我了,我只是 GTD,留个备份。


log: $1. 2014‎年‎6‎月‎15‎日; $2. Mon Aug 11 10:35:18     2014;

还在复习考研,又看到了重积分、累次积分、线面积分这部分。之前一直不明白为什么球坐标变换后的比例我就是算不对。今天终于发现了这个错误。

1. 极坐标变换

从简单开始,看极坐标变换的比例因子怎么算。当我说比例因子我说的是 dxdy = [比例因子] dρdθ 这样的比例因子。这里也就是 dxdy = ρdρdθ。还没有 Get 到 LostAbaddon 的徒手用 LaTeX 打草稿的技能,就用手写了。(图书馆的扫面仪不错)

极坐标变换

极坐标变换

这个很简单,分分钟搞定,绝对不会出错。

2. 坑人的球坐标变换

同样的方法,应该能求出球坐标变换后的比例因子,也就是 ρ^2*sin(phi)。但我算了很多次,都没有成功,我这么做的:

球坐标变换(有错误)

球坐标变换(有错误)

展开的妙。。。不能更二。真是无法理解为什么每次都犯同样的错误。而且就在这儿犯,平时也没有这么玩(自己)的。以后看到行列式里有 0,要多开心(小心)了。

改改就正确了。

修正。啊。。。这种错误

修正。啊。。。这种错误

Jacobian 这种神器以前提过: * 003. Jacobian 和 Determinant - 简书

看到 感恩记录(2014年7月10日),一激动就成了 豆瓣FM Pro 用户。


爱吐槽,爱挑刺,在很多人看来我是个一直愤怒着的人。

但我不是。

喷,是一种态度,它的另一面是中庸。在我看来,如果你觉得怎么都可以,那就是耍流氓。(想象一下女朋友问你这件衣服好看还是那件衣服好看,你说“随便”。她是不是想抽你?)

没有态度的人往往没有追求。对丑无动于衷的人怎么会去追寻美?

至于那些被社会打磨得不再尖锐的人,我理解你们。我也尽力远离你们。做我的刺头,我觉得挺好。

爱喷不代表不懂生活。


现在,国内我最爱的两个网站是 简书 和 豆瓣FM。我曾在朋友圈里多次赞美 豆瓣FM,说 “等我有钱了,就赞助 豆瓣FM”。今天,我成为了 Pro 用户~ 希望这些美好的事物能长久。简书有 Pro 的时候我也尽力支持。

P.S. 豆瓣FM Pro 的音质,对我的耳朵来说是太奢侈了。但是感觉是要好点,一定是心理作用。

log: $1. Thu Jul 10 20:49:37     2014;

Refs


最大的阻力是快递费,实在太桑心,现在看看当当的包邮策略其实够厚道了

看到 闲置书籍交换活动(大家一起来蹭书) | 简书 , 就来凑热闹。

我早想卖书来着,本想趁毕业季到跳蚤市场上假装学长卖书,结果宅多日后发现,他们都卖完收工了。。。(今天他们又出来了。。。)

想到如果明年我没有考上研(希望别)或者考到别的地方,那我还得处理这些书,我就无比蛋疼,还是电子书好。前几天整理了一下,发现我的书实在太多了,我正在想我怎么看完它们。今天我来开个好头吧。(我觉得我的书整理的还是挺有条理的,简直可以作为本站发帖标准模板)

注:

有几类我不需要的:

有几类我还需要的:

一些说明:


如果有需要,可以赠送,邮费自理(当然我也不介意交换,如果有我想看的 ,但现在我是要去物质化。。。。别诱惑我。而且现在我偏好电子书。外,问上研究生的学长要不要书,他问我要不要来几本,他那也有很多。。。)


还是在这里直接把目录贴出来吧:

(右侧缩进的书已经被人订了)(我把我不会送的也缩进掉,手机看起来可能比较麻烦,因为我缩进了 60 个字符,会很混乱)

【还可以送】                   【已预订】                     【我要留着的】
                                                            001: Algorithms
002: An-Integrated-English-Course-4
003: ArcGIS-Server-开发从入门到精通
                                                            004: ArcUser-Esri
                                                            005: A-Thousand-Splended-Suns
006: BEC-真题集
                                                            007: Blink-the-power-of-thinking-without-thinking
                                                            008: Common-Lisp
009: Communicating-English-in-Culture-文化交流英语-学生实用手册 (武大口语暑期辅导班专用教材)
                              010: C#入门经典
                              011: C程序设计
                              012: C语言程序设计
                              013: C++面向对象程序设计
                                                            014: Discrete-Mathematics-and-its-Applications
                                                            015: Eat-Pray-Love
016: Fast-Reading
017: Geographic-Information-System
018: GIS空间分析理论与方法
019: GIS设计与实现
020: Gone-With-The-Wind
                                                            021: GRE词汇精选
                                                            022: Introduction-to-Linear-Algebra
                                                            023: Mastering-Regular-Expressions
024: Open-GL-编程指南 (OpenGL 红宝书)
025: Pass-BEC-口试必备手册
                                                            026: Pattern-Classification
                                                            027: Structure-and-Implementation-of-Computer-Programs
                                                            028: The-Art-of-Public-Speaking
                                                            029: The-C-Programming-Language
030: The-Importance-of-Living (林语堂经典)
                                                            031: The-Kite-Runner
                                                            032: The-Lexus-and-the-Oliver-Tree
                                                            033: The-Little-Schemer
                                                            034: The-Lord-of-the-Rings
                                                            035: The-Tipping-Point
036: Twenty-Thousand-Leagues-Under-the-Sea (海底两万里英文版)
                                                            037: Understanding-Poetry
038: Visual-C++-面向对象编程教程
                              039: 一个人的村庄
                              040: 一九八四-Nineteen-Eighty-Four
041: 一本数学书
                              042: 万物有灵且有美
                              043: 世界如此险恶-你要内心强大
                              044: 中国近现代史纲要
                              045: 乌合之众-大众心理研究
                              046: 云计算
047: 全国计算机等级考试-三级网络技术
048: 全国计算机等级考试-四级网络工程师
049: 兄弟
050: 别停下追求的脚步
                              051: 动物性食品卫生学
052: 北大英文写作教程
                                                            053: 十天突破雅思口语
                                                            054: 十天突破雅思口语-必备掌中宝
                              055: 古代诗词名句赏析
                              056: 古文观止-鉴赏词典
                              057: 古汉语常用字字典
                              058: 史记
059: 启功体-硬笔书法-技法训练
060: 园丁集
                                                            061: 围城
                              062: 地图学原理
063: 地理信息系统原理
064: 大学国防教育
065: 大学基础物理
066: 大学物理学-学习辅导与习题解答
067: 大学物理实验教程
068: 大学生体质与健康
069: 大学生安全教程
070: 大学英语创意阅读
071: 大学英语听说2345
072: 大学英语阅读教程
073: 大学语文
                              074: 奥巴马演讲集
                              075: 奥普拉演讲访谈录
                                                            076: 如何阅读一本书
077: 学习ASP.Net2.0和AJAX
078: 学习OpenCV-中文版
                              079: 小小汉英词典-外研社
                              080: 弘一大师说佛
081: 影响你一生的47部电影
082: 思想道德修养与法律基础
                              083: 思维的乐趣
                                                            084: 标准日本语
085: 情商
086: 我为演讲狂
087: 截拳道断棍-基础入门
                              088: 把栏杆拍遍
089: 数字图像处理
090: 数字测图-原理与方法
                                                            091: 数学之美
092: 数学物理方法
093: 数学物理方法-学习指导
094: 数据库系统概论
095: 数据结构-C语言版
096: 新手学五笔打字
097: 新编大学英语
                                                            098: 暗时间
099: 朝花夕拾-野草
                                                            100: 柯林斯高阶英语学习词典
                                                            101: 概率论与数理统计
                                                            102: 概率论与数理统计-习题全解指南
103: 武汉大学学生手册
104: 毛泽东思想和中国特色社会主义理论体系概论
105: 沉思录-Meditation
                                                            106: 沉默的大多数
107: 测绘学概论
                                                            108: 浪潮之巅
                                                            109: 渴望之书
110: 现代文经典评读
111: 现代素描肖像
                              112: 环境学导论
                              113: 男女内参
                              114: 病隙碎笔
                              115: 百年孤独
116: 空间数据库
117: 精通Matlab-R2011a
                              118: 红楼梦
                                                            119: 线性代数
120: 网络地理信息系统-原理与技术
121: 置身于苦难与阳光之间
122: 美丽失败者
                              123: 美国种族简史
                                                            124: 美国英语口语词典
125: 美音-纠音-透析与突破
126: 考拉小巫的英语学习日记
                                                            127: 考研政治
                                                            128: 考研数学-习题
                                                            129: 考研数学复习全书
130: 考研词汇速记指南
131: 耻辱者手记 (有两本)
                                                            132: 肢体行为
133: 自由在高处
                                                            134: 英语中级听力2
                                                            135: 英语单词拼写攻略
136: 英语学习策略-从理论到实践
137: 英语电影欣赏
                                                            138: 英语词根词典
                                                            139: 英语词汇速记大全-词根-词缀记忆法
                              140: 莫言精选集
                              141: 西西弗神话
142: 计算机图形学
143: 计算机网络
                                                            144: 误差处理与可靠性理论
                                                            145: 误差理论与可靠性理论
                                                            146: 误差理论与测量平差基础
                              147: 走夜路-请放声歌唱
148: 跟卡耐基学人际交往
149: 跟卡耐基学当众讲话
150: 软件工程
151: 遥感原理与应用
152: 遥感图像解译
153: 钱学森 (钱学森那是很帅啊)
154: 钢笔字体学与练-楷行-毛泽东诗词
                              155: 阿勒泰的角落
156: 雅思倒计时-写作
157: 雅思口语
158: 雅思机经
                                                            159: 雅思词汇
160: 高中物理-基础知识手册
                                                            161: 高等数学-同济
162: 高等数学学习与提高
163: 高等数学-武大
                                                            164: 高级美语听力特训30天
165: 高级英语阅读
166: 鲁迅散文
                                                            167: 黑客与画家

实况
➜  to-send  tree
.
├── 01-JiangJY-done (已收到)
│   ├── address.txt
│   ├── 一个人的村庄.png
│   ├── 一九八四-Nineteen-Eighty-Four.png
│   ├── 云计算.png
│   └── 百年孤独.png
├── 02-WangSY-done (已收到)
│   ├── local
│   └── 西西弗神话.png
├── 03-ChenYM-done(已收到)
│   ├── address.txt
│   ├── C#入门经典.png
│   ├── C程序设计.png
│   ├── C语言程序设计.png
│   ├── C++面向对象程序设计.png
│   ├── 世界如此险恶-你要内心强大.png
│   ├── 中国近现代史纲要.png
│   ├── 乌合之众-大众心理研究.png
│   ├── 古代诗词名句赏析.png
│   ├── 古文观止-鉴赏词典.png
│   ├── 古汉语常用字字典.png
│   ├── 史记.png
│   ├── 奥巴马演讲集.png
│   ├── 小小汉英词典-外研社.png
│   ├── 沉默的大多数.png
│   ├── 男女内参.png
│   ├── 红楼梦.png
│   ├── 美国种族简史.png
│   └── 阿勒泰的角落.png
├── 04-LiuYL-done (已收到)
│   ├── local
│   ├── 万物有灵且有美.png
│   ├── 动物性食品卫生学.png
│   ├── 把栏杆拍遍.png
│   ├── 环境学导论.png
│   └── 走夜路-请放声歌唱.png
├── 05-XueS-done (已收到)
│   ├── address.txt
│   ├── address.txt~
│   ├── 奥普拉演讲访谈录.png
│   ├── 思维的乐趣.png
│   ├── 病隙碎笔.png
│   └── 莫言精选集.png
└── 06-LiuJT-done (已收到)
    ├── address.txt
    ├── 地图学原理.png
    └── 弘一大师说佛.png

6 directories, 41 files

log: $1. 2014-06-08; $2. 2014-06-09;


log: $1. 2014-06-09;

我不是三年前的我,
我不是两年前的我,
我不是一年前的我;
我比那过去更强

我不是一年后的我,
也不是两年后的我,
更不是三年后的我;
一想将来,浑身充满力量


Refs


简书上不能使用 MathJax 编辑公式,估计以后也没有。这是多么遗憾的事,我们不能在文中简单地使用:

第一个矩阵
---------
$$
        \begin{bmatrix}
        1 & x & x^2 \\
        1 & y & y^2 \\
        1 & z & z^2 \\
        \end{bmatrix}
$$

来书写一个矩阵。但是,只要我们想,总还是有方法,只不过要麻烦一点。比如你可以这样:

第二个矩阵
---------
![][matrix]
[matrix]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\begin{bmatrix}1&x&x^2\\1&y&y^2\\1&z&z^2\\\end{bmatrix}

就有:,一个矩阵出现了。

不过好累。。。不人性。。。你得把公式用 LaTeX 写出来,就像上面的【第一个矩阵】一样,把其中 $$ 符号里多余的空格删除,拷贝出来,在前面加上 http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?,然后才能当成一个图片链接使用。

为节约人力,还可以用脚本简单处理,比如在我的 Git Bash 里(最近用瘟逗死):

cat formula.txt | tr -d ' \r\n' | clip

formula.txt 是你的公式代码,tr 语句把其中的空格和换行去掉,然后传到剪贴板里,只等你粘贴。

这样简书里也能方便(有点牵强地。。。)书写公式了。


公式示例:

01:

02:

03:

04:

05:

06:

07:


附:上文蛋疼的源码


---

#### Refs

- [MathJax Basic Tutorial and Quick Reference][mathjax-guide]
- ~~[Help: Displaying a formula (Wikipedia)][wiki-latex-math]~~


[mathjax-guide]: http://meta.math.stackexchange.com/questions/5020/mathjax-basic-tutorial-and-quick-reference
[wiki-latex-math]: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Formula



---

简书上不能使用 MathJax 编辑公式,估计以后也没有。这是多么遗憾的事,我们不能在文中简单地使用:

~~~
第一个矩阵
---------
$$
        \begin{bmatrix}
        1 & x & x^2 \\
        1 & y & y^2 \\
        1 & z & z^2 \\
        \end{bmatrix}
$$
~~~

来书写一个矩阵。但是,只要我们想,总还是有方法,只不过要麻烦一点。比如你可以这样:

~~~
第二个矩阵
---------
![][matrix]
[matrix]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\begin{bmatrix}1&x&x^2\\1&y&y^2\\1&z&z^2\\\end{bmatrix}
~~~

就有:![][00],一个矩阵出现了。

不过好累。。。不人性。。。你得把公式用 LaTeX 写出来,就像上面的【第一个矩阵】一样,把其中 $$ 符号里多余的空格删除,拷贝出来,在前面加上 `http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?`,然后才能当成一个图片链接使用。

为节约人力,还可以用脚本简单处理,比如在我的 Git Bash 里(最近用瘟逗死):

~~~
cat formula.txt | tr -d ' \r\n' | clip
~~~

`formula.txt` 是你的公式代码,`tr` 语句把其中的空格和换行去掉,然后传到剪贴板里,只等你粘贴。

这样简书里也能方便(有点牵强地。。。)书写公式了。



---

### 公式示例:

01: ![][01]

02: ![][02]

03: ![][03]

04: ![][04]

05: ![][05]

06: ![][06]

07: ![][07]


[00]: http://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?\begin{bmatrix}1&x&x^2\\1&y&y^2\\1&z&z^2\\\end{bmatrix}
[01]: http://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?sh(x)=\frac{e^x+e^{-x}}{2}}
[02]: http://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?C_n^k=\frac{n(n-1)\ldots(n-k+1)}{k!}
[03]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\begin{align}\sqrt{37}&=\sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{12^2}}\\&=\sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}\cdot\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}}\\&=\sqrt{\frac{73^2}{12^2}}\sqrt{\frac{73^2-1}{73^2}}\\&=\frac{73}{12}\sqrt{1-\frac{1}{73^2}}\\&\approx\frac{73}{12}\left(1-\frac{1}{2\cdot73^2}\right)\end{align}
[04]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\begin{array}{c|lcr}n&\text{Left}&\text{Center}&\text{Right}\\\hline1&0.24&1&125\\2&-1&189&-8\\3&-20&2000&1+10i\\\end{array}
[05]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\mathbb{N,Z,Q,R,C}
[06]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?\left\{\begin{array}{ll}a_1x+b_1y+c_1z&=d_1+e_1\\a_2x+b_2y&=d_2\\a_3x+b_3y+c_3z&=d_3\end{array}\right.
[07]: http://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?f\left(\left[\frac{1+\left\{x,y\right\}}{\left(\frac{x}{y}+\frac{y}{x}\right)\left(u+1\right)}+a\right]^{3/2}\right)

P.S. 据 log 说这篇文章在草稿里已经一个多月了。大部分还是刚才敲的,充分说明一鼓作气有多重要。

P.P.S. 作业部落支持的东西就很丰富:MathJax,脚注,目录,Tags,流程图,以及 Vim Emacs 编辑模式等。不过,它完全定位成了笔记本。


log: $1. 2014-06-12; $2. Tue Jul 22 18:12:20     2014;

Cold Turkey 是一种策略。比如你要戒烟,可以采用逐步过渡的方式(比如今天 20 支烟,明天 18,后天 15,逐步减为 0),大多数人认为这样更加自然,也很靠谱。Cold Turkey 是一种极端的戒断方式,从戒烟初始就完全摒弃,知道这种杜绝变得自然,不让你心还痒痒。

感觉我的表达能力有限,直接贴维基上的解释吧:

Cold turkey” describes the abrupt cessation of a substance dependence and the resulting unpleasant experience, as opposed to gradually easing the process through reduction over time or by using replacement medication.

Cold turkey method 是我比较喜欢的策略之一4,干脆、没有退路,背水一战!

今天想到 Cold Turkey,是因为看了一篇文章:我节约时间的五大妙法,有人回复说,有个软件叫“Cold Turkey”。哈哈,这个软件名字很贴切。

我决定用这个方法把微博、豆瓣和 QQ 空间先戒了。

        祈祷词

               席慕容

我知道这世界不是绝对的好
我也知道它有离别 有衰老
然而我只有一次的机会
上主啊 请俯听我的祈祷

请给我一个长长的夏季
给我一段无暇的回忆
给我一颗温柔的心
给我一份洁白的恋情

我只能来这世上一次 所以
请再给我一个美丽的名字
好让他能在夜里呼唤我
在奔驰的岁月里
永远记得我们曾经相爱的事



XCAPE READEME.md

XCAPE
=====

xcape allows you to use a modifier key as another key when pressed and
released on its own. Note that it is slightly slower than pressing the
original key, because the pressed event does not occur until the key is
released. The default behaviour is to generate the Escape key when Left
Control is pressed and released on its own. (If you don't understand why
anybody would want this, I'm guessing that Vim is not your favourite text
editor ;)

Minimal building instructions
-----------------------------

    $ sudo apt-get install git gcc make pkg-config libx11-dev libxtst-dev libxi-dev
    $ mkdir xcape
    $ cd xcape
    $ git clone https://github.com/alols/xcape.git .
    $ make

Usage
-----
    $ xcape [-d] [-t <timeout ms>] [-e <map-expression>]

### `-d`

Debug mode. Does not fork into the background.

### `-t <timeout ms>`

If you hold a key longer than this timeout, xcape will not generate a key
event. Default is 500 ms.

### `-e <map-expression>`

The expression has the grammar `'ModKey=Key[|OtherKey][;NextExpression]'`

The list of key names is found in the header file `X11/keysymdef.h` (remove
the `XK_` prefix). Note that due to limitations of X11 shifted keys *must*
be specified as a shift key followed by the key to be pressed rather than
the actual name of the character. For example to generate "{" the
expression `'ModKey=Shift_L|bracketleft'` could be used (assuming that you
have a key with "{" above "[").

You can also specify ModKey in decimal (prefix `#`), octal (`#0`), or
hexadecimal (`#0x`). It will be interpreted as a keycode unless no corresponding
key name is found.

#### Examples

+   This will make Left Shift generate Escape when pressed and released on
    it's own, and Left Control generate Ctrl-O combination when pressed and
    released on it's own.

        xcape -e 'Shift_L=Escape;Control_L=Control_L|O'

+   In conjugation with xmodmap it is possible to make an ordinary key act
    as an extra modifier. First map the key to the modifier with xmodmap
    and then the modifier back to the key with xcape. However, this has
    several limitations: the key will not work as ordinary until it is
    relased, and in particular, *it may act as a modifier unintentionally if
    you type too fast.* This is not a bug in xcape, but an unavoidable
    consequence of using these two tools together in this way.
    As an example, we can make the space bar work as an additional ctrl
    key when held (similar to
    [Space2ctrl](https://github.com/r0adrunner/Space2Ctrl)) with the
    following sequence of commands.

        # Map an unused modifier's keysym to the spacebar's keycode and make it a
        # control modifier. It needs to be an existing key so that emacs won't
        # spazz out when you press it. Hyper_L is a good candidate.
        spare_modifier="Hyper_L"
        xmodmap -e "keycode 65 = $spare_modifier"
        xmodmap -e "remove mod4 = $spare_modifier" # hyper_l is mod4 by default
        xmodmap -e "add Control = $spare_modifier"

        # Map space to an unused keycode (to keep it around for xcape to
        # use).
        xmodmap -e "keycode any = space"

        # Finally use xcape to cause the space bar to generate a space when tapped.
        xcape -e "$spare_modifier=space"


Note regarding xmodmap
----------------------

If you are in the habit of remapping keycodes to keysyms (eg, using xmodmap),
there are two issues you may encounter.

1. You will need to restart xcape after every time you modify the mapping from
   keycodes to keysyms (eg, with xmodmap), or xcape will still use the old
   mapping.

2. The key you wish to send must have a defined keycode. So for example, with
   the default mapping `Control_L=Escape`, you still need an escape key defined
   in your xmodmap mapping. (I get around this by using 255, which my keyboard
   cannot send).

Contact
-------

Find the latest version at
https://github.com/alols/xcape

The author can be reached at
albin dot olsson at gmail dot com

这种变态的对齐应该是编辑器自动调整得把(总不能写好手动来吧。。。),谁知道怎么办到的?是 Vim,Emacs 里的什么操作?

Vim 里先 set tw=80(text width),再 gq$ 把接下来的一段自动 word wrap 到 80 个字符。

还有这个:https://github.com/vim-ruby/vim-ruby/blob/master/README 应该是 Vim 弄的。


Refs


log: $1. Mon Sep  1 23:38:55     2014;

done-唐氏大猜想

这次要把简书当微博使,占个位先。

说个认真的,人类进化史和科技发展史的的两大里程碑应该是口语和文字的消失,它们从远古走来伴随人类这么多年,想想就有点小激动。我死之前应该能看到新生的孩子都是“哑巴”。恩,这是唐氏猜想,License 是 GPL, 受 CopyLeft 保护。

恩,这就是唐氏大猜想的全部内容。想想就有点小激动。


log: $1. 2014-06-04;

因为单位矩阵是 Identity matrix,通常用 I 表示(虽然国内教材通常用 E 表示)。I 的读法就是 eye5


这篇是不是有点冷……同理:

Command Meaning Why
eps 浮点数最小间距 epsilon,ɛ

作为正常人看到广告通常都要咬牙切齿,浪费我宝贵的网速,让人没法舒舒服服看点东西。但有些广告确实做的赏心悦目,播完还给我一种恋恋不舍的感觉。


01. 人为什么活着?

一个很热血的广告。讲,人为什么活着。音乐也很棒。但最后给我们的答案却不那么让我满意。梦?梦。(not 梦?梦!)


02. 士力架,横扫饥饿

太经典了。。。


Happy Christmas




log: 2014-05-05, created this post;

无关爱情,只是记得

【文】梁珊珊 【转录自】武汉大学图书馆,馆刊?

前不久,偶尔在网上碰见失去联系的中学同学,一通电话打过去,聊得很是兴奋。

嘘寒问暖道过近况之后,便开始把老同学一个个数过去,谁谁谁去了哪里念书,谁谁谁开始打工创业,各有各的境遇,各有各的悲喜,赞叹的唏嘘的偶尔还有点酸酸的小嫉妒间或弥漫在电话两端。

末了,我问,你还记得那谁么?那谁是对方追过的女孩子,老同学满脸羞涩、偷偷把巨大的绒毛乌龟玩偶塞进她抽屉的场景在记忆里新鲜得还如在眼前。

电话那端沉默许久,才回答,怎么可能不记得。语气跟开头有些许异样,好像那个名字有魔力一般,打开了通往过去的阀门,将他带到了另一个时空。

我接着问他还有没有再联系。

有啊,这次他倒是答得很快,时不时会在 qq 上聊天。

我说,那样啊,她有男朋友了没,若是没有,还是可以再追她的。

不知道,没有问过;而且,我已经有女朋友了,我们很好,没有想过再和她怎么样,只不过,最初的喜欢,忘不掉啊。

之后聊起他女朋友,说起两人相遇的情境,他的声音里满满的都是甜蜜和温柔。我知道他的爱情已经给了现在的这个女孩,关于曾经求而不得的那个人,不过是一段回忆,记录着青春活力,记录着年少轻狂,太过美好因而割舍不掉。

我觉得我很能理解他,自己也曾在懵懂的年岁里近乎执迷地喜欢过人,之后高考求学,各奔各的前程,散落在祖国的大江南北,有着他的联系方式,却很少有联系,开始的时候每次看见他上线,都要克制自己别太过急切地过去打招呼,日子久了便也逐渐习惯。偶尔有一搭没一搭地闲聊几句,大都是没什么盐水的废话,最关心的那句总是哽在喉咙里出不去:你过得好不好?太简单,可又太沉重,于是干脆不说,插科打诨里了解到些许近况就是全部了。

不知道他过着什么样的生活,不知道他交着什么样的朋友,不知道这些年的光阴将对方磨练成了什么样的人,其实曾经的执着早就失去了具体的对象。之所以念念不忘,与其说是为了那一个人,倒不如说是为了曾经那个自己,那个被一段无果爱恋所牵扯的青春岁月。

忘或者不忘,都与爱情没有什么关系了,被记得的是当年年少。


发现一个特别牛逼的网站6,提供一些靠谱的 Excel 表格下载。

比如刚才我下载了 weekly-calendar-template.xlsx,在 Excel 里输入好当前周的开始日期,居然可以自动生成周历!如图:

weekly-calendar-2015-11-01

weekly-calendar-2015-11-01

效果还特别赞: header of weekly-calendar-2015-11-01

好好学习,天天向上。

# 一个在无法用 Sort 自动排好序的列表
| Key | Value |
| :---: | :---: |
| foo | fool |
| bar | barbaric |
| ![][ass] | shit... |

# 这个就可以排序了
| Key | Value |
| :---: | :---: |
| [foo] | fool |
| [bar] | barbaric |
| [ass]!(url) | shit... | # 后缀表达式多么好,注意这个图片。我觉得这个要求挺合理,UTC 时间的缩写都不是 CUT。。。

刚发了条说说:

程序语言(的设计)应当多用【前缀表达】,比如 3 + 2 变成 + 3 2。标记语言(的设计)则应当多用【后缀表达】,比如 Markdown 的图片链接 ![](url)最好设计成 []!(url) 前者操作优先,后者内容优先。


log: $1. Fri Aug 29 00:57:59     2014;

首先這是一款鍵盤:

當然,作爲一個鍵盤控而不是鍵盤燈控,我才不 care 鍵盤長什麼樣。這款鍵盤的牛逼之處在於能定製(所以我現在用的是 Poker II):

1. Open Source Design 2. No Upfront Tooling Costs 3. Fully Programmable Keys(這才是關鍵) 4. Dual Cherry MX / Alps Switch Compatibility

還可以直接產生中文……我的 Gat 輸入發 不是正好爲此而生的……還有 Dvorak……我使用的就是 Dovark 啊……所以這鍵盤簡直滿足了我對鍵盤的一切想法(除了我覺得空格鍵應該短一點)。

TheInfinity Keyboard

TheInfinity Keyboard

The Infinity earned its name from the infinite layers with which the keyboard can be programmed, making it more configurable than any other circuit board on the market.


To program your keyboard, all you have to do is use the handy Infinity Configurator and select exactly where you want your keys to be.


GitHub: kiibohd/controller


題外話

Infinity 60% FAQ

Does the Infinity 60% Kit have backlighting? Are there plans for backlighting? No, the Infinity 60% Kit does not support backlighting. No, There are no plans for the Infinity 60% to support backlighting.

一直覺得鍵盤燈很傻馬特(當然晚上確實有實際作用)。

Does the Infinity 60% Kit have NKRO? Yes. The Infinity 60% Kit has NKRO by default on most operating systems including Mac OSX. The 6KRO compatibility mode may be explicitly toggled via the firmware if needed. 6KRO is very sufficient for me. 

這個是必須的。牛逼的是它可以從硬件上 toggle 這個特性……

Is the Infinity 60% programmable? How do I reprogram my Infinity 60% to a different layout? Yes, the Infinity 60% is fully programmable. Use the web configurator to download the hex files and flash it on to the keyboard or download and compile KLL on your own. TMK firmware is also compatible with the Infinity 60%.

定製界面:KII Keyboard Configurator

順手我把自己的 DVPE Level1 給配置了一下:

我現在在使用的 DVPE 鍵盤佈局

我現在在使用的 DVPE 鍵盤佈局

(我發縣“k”被唔達成了“p”,left hand upper row)

What microchip does the Infinity 60% Kit use? The Infinity 60% Kit uses the MK20DX128VLF5  The datasheets can be found here and here.


Refs


如果一个人说的东西你死活看不懂,除了讨论的内容涉及太多你不理解的概念之外,极有可能是对方没说清。

除此,智商,逻辑,思维不差太多的情况下,你好好说,人还能好好听不懂?

年轻的时候老师叫我们多用排比:把一句话说成三句,会显得很有气势。我如获至宝。现在想想,那气势有点像吵架,我不禁要问:嗓门儿大就有理了?

有些人写了 800 字也只说了我喜欢你。没有你也没有我,只有我喜欢你。还比不上这十来个字:我喜欢你,因为你是我男神。

把事物描述复杂很容易,只要堆砌各种花哨的无聊的有关无关的形容词,以及 @#$%…& 的动词。以及一些尤其让我难以理解的细节,比如 45 度仰望天空。45 度???

把事物描述简单却很难,你要能拎清楚事物内在的逻辑,顺着一条主线有条不紊地说,听的人就容易懂。如果写文章像饭后吹牛,脑子里突然想到一点,就啪啪啪敲上去,慢慢地,你照顾了太多细节,却忘记了主线,把别人和自己都带沟里去了。

举个例子,偷书贼 里严厉的老师让小女主人公自我介绍:

“Chalk,Name,Board(粉笔,名字,黑板)”。

真是太简洁了~ 如果换成是“用粉笔把你的名字写在黑板上”,那就完全没有味道了。

 

总之,语言简洁的好处,就是简洁。

(才 389 469 个字。)

log: $1. Wed Jul 16 22:01:30     2014;

中文舉例:這個人氣宇非凡 – 一看就不是傻逼。

英文舉例:This man is awesome–in a strange way.

OpenGL to OpenSceneGraph Lookup

Lookup table for helping people with converting OpenGL code to OpenSceneGraph code. OpenGL function OpenSceneGraph implementation

glClear( GLbitfield mask ) osg::Camera::setClearMask(GLbitfield mask)osg::GraphicsContext::setClearMask(GLbitfield mask)osg::ClearNode::setClearMask(GLbitfield mask)osg::RenderStage::setClearMask(GLbitfield mask)

glClearColor(GLclampf red, GLclampf green, GLclampf blue, GLclampf alpha) osg::Camera::setClearColor(const osg::Vec4& color)osgUtil::SceneView::setClearColor(const osg::Vec4& color)

glClearDepth osg::Camera::setClearDepth(double depth)

glClearStencil osg::Camera::setClearStencil(int stencil)

State Attributes

glAlphaFunc( GLenum func, GLclampf ref ) osg::AlphaFunc(ComparisonFunction func, float ref)

glBlendColor(GLclampf red, GLclampf green, GLclampf blue, GLclampf alpha) osg::BlendColor(const osg::Vec4& constantColor)

glBlendFunc( GLenum sfactor, GLenum dfactor) osg::BlendFunc(GLenum source, GLenum destination, GLenum source_alpha, GLenum destination_alpha)

glBlendEquation(GLenum mode) osg::BlendEquation(Equation equation)

glClampColor(GLenum target, GLenum mode) osg::ClampColor(GLenum vertexMode, GLenum fragmentMode, GLenum readMode);

glColorMask( GLboolean red, GLboolean green, GLboolean blue, GLboolean alpha ) osg::ColorMask(bool red, bool green, bool blue, bool alpha);

glMatrixMode( GL_COLOR ) osg::ColorMatrix()

glCullFace(GLenum mode) osg::CullFace(Mode mode)

glDepthFunc( GLenum func)glDepthRange( GLclampd zNear, GLclampd zFar )glDepthMask( GLboolean flag ) osg::Depth(Function func, double zNear, double zFar, bool writeMask)

glFog( GLenum pname, GLfloat param )glFogv(GLenum pname, const GLfloat *params ) osg::Fog();

glFogf( GL_FOG_MODE, GLfloat param ) osg::Fog::setMode( Mode mode )

glFogf( GL_FOG_DENSITY, GLfloat param ) osg::Fog::setDensity( float density )

glFogf( GL_FOG_START, GLfloat param ) osg::Fog::setStart( float start )

glFogf( GL_FOG_END, GLfloat param ) osg::Fog::setEnd( float end )

glFogf( GL_FOG_INDEX, GLfloat param ) Color indexing not supported

glFogfv(GL_FOG_COLOR, const GLfloat *params ) osg::Fog::setColor( const Vec4 &color )

glFogi(GL_FOG_COORDINATE_SOURCE, GLenum mode) osg::Fog::setFogCoordinateSource(GLint source)

glFrontFace( GLenum mode ) osg::FrontFace(Mode face)

glHint( GLenum target, GLenum mode ) osg::Hint(GLenum target, GLenum mode)

glLight(GLenum light, GLenum pname, GLfloat param )glLightv( GLenum light, GLenum pname, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light(unsigned int lightnum)

glLightfv( GLenum light, GL_AMBIENT, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light::setAmbient( const Vec4& ambient )

glLightfv( GLenum light, GL_DIFFUSE, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light::setDiffuse( const Vec4& diffuse )

glLightfv( GLenum light, GL_SPECULAR, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light::setSpecular( const Vec4& specular )

glLightfv( GLenum light, GL_POSITION, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light::setPosition( const Vec4& position )

glLightfv( GLenum light, GL_SPOT_DIRECTION, const GLfloat *params) osg::Light::setDirection( const Vec3& direction )

glLightf(GLenum light, GL_CONSTANT_ATTENUATION, GLfloat param ) osg::Light::setConstantAttenuation( float constant_attenuation )

glLightf(GLenum light, GL_LINEAR_ATTENUATION, GLfloat param ) osg::Light::setLinearAttenuation ( float linear_attenuation )

glLightf(GLenum light, GL_QUADRATIC_ATTENUATION, GLfloat param ) osg::Light::setQuadraticAttenuation ( float quadratic_attenuation )

glLightf(GLenum light, GL_SPOT_EXPONENT, GLfloat param ) osg::Light::setSpotExponent( float spot_exponent )

glLightf(GLenum light, GL_SPOT_CUTOFF, GLfloat param ) osg::Light::setSpotCutoff( float spot_cutoff )

glLightModel( GLenum pname, GLfloat param )glLightModelv( GLenum pname, const GLfloat *params ) osg::LightModel()

glLightModelfv( GL_LIGHT_MODEL_AMBIENT, const GLfloat *params ) osg::LightModel::setAmbientIntensity(const osg::Vec4& ambient)

glLightModeli(GL_LIGHT_MODEL_COLOR_CONTROL, GLint param) osg::LightModel::setColorControl(ColorControl cc)

glLightModeli( GL_LIGHT_MODEL_LOCAL_VIEWER, GLint param ) osg::LightModel::setLocalViewer(bool localViewer)

glLightModeli( GL_LIGHT_MODEL_TWO_SIDE, GLint param ) osg::LightModel::setTwoSided(bool twoSided)

glLineStipple( GLint factor, GLushort pattern ) osg::LineStipple(GLint factor, GLushort pattern)

glLineWidth( GLfloat width ) osg::LineWidth(float width=1.0f)

glLogicOp( GLenum opcode ) osg::LogicOp(Opcode opcode)

glMaterialf(GLenum face, GLenum pname, GLfloat param ) osg::Material()

  osg::Multisample()

  osg::PolygonMode(Face face,Mode mode)

  osg::PolygonOffset(float factor, float units)

  osg::PolygonStipple(const GLubyte* mask)

  osg::Scissor(int x,int y,int width,int height)

  osg::ShadeModel(Mode mode)

glStencilFunc( GLenum func, GLint ref, GLuint mask ) osg::Stencil::setFunction(Function func,int ref,unsigned int mask)

glStencilMask( GLuint mask ) osg::Stencil::setOperation(Operation sfail, Operation zfail, Operation zpass)

glStencilOp( GLenum fail, GLenum zfail, GLenum zpass )

  osg::StencilTwoSided()

glTexEnvi( GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEXTURE_ENV_MODE, …)glTexEnvfv( GL_TEXTURE_ENV, GL_TEXTURE_ENV_COLOR, …) osg::TexEnv(Mode mode)

glTexEnvi( GL_TEXTURE_ENV, …)Texture combiners extension osg::TexEnvCombine()

glTexEnvf(GL_TEXTURE_FILTER_CONTROL_EXT, GL_TEXTURE_LOD_BIAS_EXT, …) osg::TexEnvFilter(float lodBias)

glTexGen_( GLenum coord, GLenum pname, GLdouble param ) osg::TexGen()osg::TexGenNode()

glMatrixMode( GL_TEXTURE ) osg::TexMat(const Matrix& matrix)

glTexImage1D( GL_TEXTURE_1D, …) osg::Texture1D()

glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_2D, …) osg::Texture2D(Image* image)

glTexImage3D( GL_TEXTURE_2D_ARRAY_EXT, …) osg::Texture2DArray()

glTexImage3D( GL_TEXTURE_3D, …) osg::Texture3D()

glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_X, …)glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_X, …)glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Y, …)glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Y, …)glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_POSITIVE_Z, …)glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_NEGATIVE_Z, …) osg::TextureCubeMap()

glTexImage2D( GL_TEXTURE_RECTANGLE, …) osg::TextureRectangle(Image* image)

glViewport( GLint x, GLint y, GLsizei width, GLsizei height ) osg::Viewport(value_type x,value_type y,value_type width,value_type height)

< Prev Next >

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Graphics_tutorials

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:How_to_create_graphs_for_Wikipedia_articles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:SVG_Help

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scalable_Vector_Graphics

Animated SVG

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Animated_SVG

http://wiki.inkscape.org/wiki/index.php/SVG_Animation

http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/animate.html

https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/SVG

g++ -ggdb pkg-config --cflags opencv -o basename $1 .cpp $1 pkg-config --libs opencv;


  1. 本站的 quotation marks 都是 smart 的。

  2. ‘C-u 0 C-x e’ to execute the macro an infinite number of times until the end of the file is reached

  3. 不知道你有没有书,看了头每次拿起都在重复读前几十页。此法可以避了一本书死活读不到最后一页的悲剧。

  4. 还有一个是“森田疗法”

  5. Identity matrix - MATLAB eye - MathWorks 中国

  6. http://www.vertex42.com/ Excel Templates, Calendars, Calculators and Spreadsheets by Vertex42


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