Navy Typing Training

Basic Typing: Methods

Basic Typing: Methods

这个教学片叫“Basic Typing,Part I:Methods”(打字基础 | 第一部分:方法论),是 1943 年 U.S. Navy(美国海军)拍摄了用来指导打字员的教学片。

This film will demonstrate and explain the techniques essential for superior typing.

Archive.org 上有介绍,参见 Basic Typing, Part I: Methods (Part I)Basic Typing, Part I: Methods (Part II),你可以在 优酷 在线观看,

基本信息:

Demonstrates correct posture for typing; proper fingering of the keys; use of the shift key, back spacer, tabulator, carriage return lever, etc.; and differences between manual and electric typewriters.

打字机

打字机

片子里除了讲了打字的一下练习方法,还有一部分是关于打字机的使用,在此我略过了。

【目的】:Aquire superior usable typing skill.

One way to learn a better or the best way of doing anything is to watch and analyse the skills of an expert.

Typing expert 专家是她:

How you type is more important than what you type.

“How you type is more important than what you type.”

1. 姿势(Posture)

背部挺直

Master correct typing techiniques 的第一步,就是调整自己的姿态,让自己处于一个舒爽的姿势(a natural and easy working position)。

第一步是你的背,你要像上图一样坐直。

如果你的椅子太高了,你就会前倾,如图左;如果你的椅子太矮了,你就会仰着脖子,如图右。两种情况都不能让你处于一种靠谱的打字状态。

还有你的脚,如果椅子太高,你的脚悬空,一定不会舒服。你应该找一把可以让自己坐直而且脚正好放在地面的椅子,如下图。

双脚一前一后(one foot ahead of the other),便于平衡,而且舒服

双脚一前一后(one foot ahead of the other),便于平衡,而且舒服

腹部距离桌沿 9 英寸

腹部距离桌沿 9 英寸

坐得稍偏右

坐得稍偏右

肘部和桌面基本水平

肘部和桌面基本水平

除了坐姿,你还要让你的肘部水平。

除了坐姿,你还要让你的肘部水平。

最后,就像这样。

手指放松

这不是 relaxed(撑的太开)

这不是 relaxed(撑的太开)

这也不是 relaxed(握得太紧)

这也不是 relaxed(握得太紧)

这才是 relaxed 的状态(手指自然弯曲)

这才是 relaxed 的状态(手指自然弯曲)

把这个姿势移到键盘上,就对了:

手指呈 relaxed 状态放于键盘上

手指呈 relaxed 状态放于键盘上

Keep your hands and fingers at a natural and easy working position. 这样你打字的时候,就不需要大幅度地移动你的手腕(no movement in your wrist at forearm)。

键位的熟悉和练习

基本策略

只有一个:

Do the necessary motions well and eliminate the unnecessary ones.

手指抬起太高,有太多的 unnecessary motions

手指抬起太高,有太多的 unnecessary motions

恰如其分

恰如其分

太多不必要都动作,不仅打起来容易累、容易出错,还降低了打字速度(need more energy, raise errors, slow down the typing)。

打字不是一个匀速的过程,它应当富有韵律。每次击键要轻快(swift),击键之间要有停顿,你可以在这些停顿中计划手指的移动。

韵律感

韵律感

Exercises will develop your key stroking.

熟练之后,停顿会变得更短

熟练之后,停顿会变得更短

但【从一开始,击键就要快(而轻盈)】。我觉得这样的击键可以称为“乒乓球式”,一个很缓慢的击键可以成为“年糕式”,那种用很大的力气击键,发出沉闷的一声的,可以成为“沙包式”。

这叫“抑扬顿挫”。

外,the keys sholud be stroked with rounded tip of your finger。剪指太长了就去剪掉。

下面来讲键盘

中间一行叫 home row,上面叫 upper row,下面叫 lower row。手指放在 home row 上的 guide keys 上,左手四个指头对应“asdf”,右手对应“jkl;”。

左边的键左手敲,右边的右手敲。

两个练习 ♥️

练习 1:两手交替,从外向内,重复重复

Strike your home rows alternatively from outside in and out again.

慢速

慢速

快速

快速

QWERTY:a;sldkfjgh - a;sldkfjgh - a;sldkfjgh - ...

Dvorak:anosetirud - anosetirud - anosetirud - ...

练习 2:两个手指上下移动
俯视图

俯视图

QWERTY:fjdkrueifjdkvmc, - fjdkrueifjdkvmc, - ...

Dvorak:iretkg.cirethmjw - iretkg.cirethmjw - ...

外,打字的力度也很重要,要打得均匀。

早期的打字机,打的轻和打的重是不一样的

早期的打字机,打的轻和打的重是不一样的

最后,关于空格键。大拇指不要“撑直”,自然弯曲就好:

(指法:Finger legality and control。)

理论与实践缺一不可,下面是结束语:

the next most important thing is intelligent and purposeful practice

the next most important thing is intelligent and purposeful practice


网友对这个教学片的一个 review:

Subject: A must for typewriter enthusiasts!

Reviewer: Eric_Petersen - 5 stars - October 1, 2004

In 1976, when I was six years old, my mother took a typing course and bought a Smith-Corona portable manual typewriter. I absolutely loved that little machine, even though it was a glorified toy. Sadly, at that time, the typewriter’s glory days were just about over.

I still own a couple old manual typewriters. The best of the two is a 1962 Olympia, but even then, they were being made with plastic keys. This 1943 Navy training film, geared toward secretaries, features the great typewriters of the 1930s and 40s (the Underwood is my favorite) which were all-metal and built to be long-lasting, easy to maintain workhorses.

The movie opens with footage of rare, beautiful antique typewriters, then shows us various current (as of 1943) models, including an early electric typewriter. Most typewriter enthusiasts (myself included) consider electrics an abomination. Manual typewriters were definitely better. There was no motor to burn out, the keys didn’t jam as often, and manuals were easier to maintain.

Lenore Benton, a then-famous typist, is the host and narrator. She covers not only typing techniques but ergonomics as well - how to sit at the typewriter to enhance comfort and performance. Of course, Ms. Benton uses the old standard ASDF JKL; fingering technique, and reinforces the myth that the correct typing technique is what’s most important, not speed and accuracy because that comes with using the correct technique.

I never could type using the ASDF JKL; method. It slowed me down and cramped up my hands. In my junior high school typing class, (circa 1983) I devised my own typing method - a kind of free-form hunt-and-peck using only my index, middle, and ring fingers. I was able to accurately type 50 to 60 words per minute that way. I got an A in the class.

Still, it was a lot of fun to watch Ms. Benton demonstrate her techniques and see her lightning-fast fingers fly over the keyboard. I laughed when she said that her instruction would help “women and girls” become better typists. Even back then - especially during the war - most male soldiers - especially staff and officers - had to do a lot of their own typing. :o)

If you’re a typewriter enthusiast or just have great memories of using these wonderful machines, this is a MUST-SEE on this site! Memo to Mr. Prelinger: more typing films, please! :o)

哈,早期的打字员和程序员都是女性的。==


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